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 'Gradient and Spin Echo' 
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Gradient and Spin EchoInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
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(GRASE) A hybrid sequence with a combination of gradient and spin echo sequences. If multiple image lines are obtained during a single echo, the imaging pulse sequence type is a GRASE sequence.
See Gradient Echo Sequence and Spin Echo Sequence.
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
GRASE (Gradient- and Spin-Echo) MR of the Brain
   by www.ajnr.org    
  News & More:
Sequence for Philips(.pdf)
   by www.droid.cuhk.edu.hk    
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Spin Echo SequenceInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
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Spin Echo Timing Diagram (SE) The most common pulse sequence used in MR imaging is based of the detection of a spin or Hahn echo. It uses 90° radio frequency pulses to excite the magnetization and one or more 180° pulses to refocus the spins to generate signal echoes named spin echoes (SE).
In the pulse sequence timing diagram, the simplest form of a spin echo sequence is illustrated.
The 90° excitation pulse rotates the longitudinal magnetization (Mz) into the xy-plane and the dephasing of the transverse magnetization (Mxy) starts.
The following application of a 180° refocusing pulse (rotates the magnetization in the x-plane) generates signal echoes. The purpose of the 180° pulse is to rephase the spins, causing them to regain coherence and thereby to recover transverse magnetization, producing a spin echo.
The recovery of the z-magnetization occurs with the T1 relaxation time and typically at a much slower rate than the T2-decay, because in general T1 is greater than T2 for living tissues and is in the range of 100-2000 ms.
The SE pulse sequence was devised in the early days of NMR days by Carr and Purcell and exists now in many forms: the multi echo pulse sequence using single or multislice acquisition, the fast spin echo (FSE/TSE) pulse sequence, echo planar imaging (EPI) pulse sequence and the gradient and spin echo (GRASE) pulse sequence;; all are basically spin echo sequences.
In the simplest form of SE imaging, the pulse sequence has to be repeated as many times as the image has lines.
Contrast values:
PD weighted: Short TE (20 ms) and long TR.
T1 weighted: Short TE (10-20 ms) and short TR (300-600 ms)
T2 weighted: Long TE (greater than 60 ms) and long TR (greater than 1600 ms)
With spin echo imaging no T2* occurs, caused by the 180° refocusing pulse. For this reason, spin echo sequences are more robust against e.g., susceptibility artifacts than gradient echo sequences.
See also Pulse Sequence Timing Diagram to find a description of the components.
 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Shoulder Coronal T1 SE  Open this link in a new window
    

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 Shoulder Axial T1 SE  Open this link in a new window
 MRI Orbita T1  Open this link in a new window
    
 
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• View the DATABASE results for 'Spin Echo Sequence' (24).Open this link in a new window

 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
Fast Spin Echo(.pdf)
Tuesday, 24 January 2006   by www.81bones.net    
Magnetic resonance imaging
   by www.scholarpedia.org    
FUNDAMENTALS OF MRI: Part I
   by www.e-radiography.net    
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New MR sequence helps radiologists more accurately evaluate abnormalities of the uterus and ovaries
Thursday, 23 April 2009   by www.eurekalert.org    
MRI techniques improve pulmonary embolism detection
Monday, 19 March 2012   by medicalxpress.com    
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Turbo Gradient Spin EchoInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
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(TGSE / TurboGSE) A sequence with a combination of Gradient and Spin Echo Imaging. Additional gradient echoes are generated before and after each spin echo. The spin echoes are allocated to the center of the raw data matrix to give pure T2 contrast. The gradient echoes primarily determine the image resolution. If multiple image lines are obtained during a single echo, the imaging pulse sequence type is a TGSE pulse sequence. This sequence is very fast, fat is darker and more sensitive to susceptibility effects. Also called GRASE.
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Balanced Fast Field EchoInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
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(bFFE) A FFE sequence using a balanced gradient waveform. A balanced sequence starts out with a RF pulse of 90° or less and the spins in the steady state. Before the next TR in the slice phase and frequency encoding, gradients are balanced so their net value is zero. Now the spins are prepared to accept the next RF pulse, and their corresponding signal can become part of the new transverse magnetization. Since the balanced gradients maintain the transverse and longitudinal magnetization, the result is, that both T1 and T2 contrast are represented in the image. This pulse sequence produces images with increased signal from fluid, along with retaining T1 weighted tissue contrast. Because this form of sequence is extremely dependent on field homogeneity, it is essential to run a shimming prior the acquisition. A fully balanced (refocused) sequence would yield higher signal, especially for tissues with long T2 relaxation times.
See Steady State Free Precession and Gradient Echo Sequence.

 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Cardiac Infarct Short Axis Cine bFFE 1  Open this link in a new window
    
 
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• View the DATABASE results for 'Balanced Fast Field Echo' (3).Open this link in a new window

 
Further Reading:
  News & More:
T1rho-prepared balanced gradient echo for rapid 3D T1rho MRI
Monday, 1 September 2008   by www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov    
Utility of the FIESTA Pulse Sequence in Body Oncologic Imaging: Review
June 2009   by www.ajronline.org    
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Contrast Enhanced FASTInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
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(CE-FAST) In this technique, the MR signal is sampled immediately prior to each RF pulse. Because the signal is formed by a true spin echo, its contrast is predominantly T2-, rather than T2*-based and is less sensitive to artifacts and signal losses related to field non-uniformity and susceptibility variation. While the signal to noise ratio is limited, the CE-FAST method has the advantage of good contrast.
See Contrast Enhanced Gradient Echo Sequence and Gradient Echo Sequence.
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• View the DATABASE results for 'Contrast Enhanced FAST' (5).Open this link in a new window

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