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 NMR            Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 
Searchterm 'NMR' was found in the Abbreviation Register. 
Result : Searchterm 'NMR' found in 3 terms [] and 38 definitions []
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NMRForum -
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 - NMR -
 
Nuclear magnetic resonance is a diagnostic procedure, based on the principles of magnetic resonance.
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
Magnetic Resonance Imaging, History & Introduction
2000   by www.cis.rit.edu    
  News & More:
MRI's inside story
Thursday, 4 December 2003   by www.economist.com    
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Surface Coil NMRInfoSheet: - Coils - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Coils -
 
A surface coil placed over a region of interest will have an effective selectivity for a volume approximately subtended by the coil circumference and one radius deep from the coil center. Such a coil can be used for simple localization of sites for measurement of chemical shift spectra, especially of phosphorus, and blood flow studies. Some additional spatial selectivity can be achieved with magnetic field gradients.
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MRI Resources 
MR Myelography - Developers - Corporations - Implant and Prosthesis - Case Studies - Anatomy
 
Continuous Wave NMR
 
(CW) A technique for studying NMR by continuously applying RF radiation to the sample and slowly sweeping either the RF frequency or the magnetic field through the resonance values; now largely superceded by pulse MR technique.
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
The Basics of Fourier Transform NMR Spectroscopy
October 2009   by www.chem.ufl.edu    
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Spectroscopic Imaging Techniques
 
For the wide uses of NMR spectroscopy (from mineralogy to medicine) there is a variety of different spectroscopic imaging techniques available.
A short listing of the most frequent variations:
'One-dimensional NMR Spectroscopy (1D NMR) is attended to the spectra of (1H) Proton, 13Carbon etc., which in general is divided in continuous wave and pulse spectroscopy. General used to determine chemical structures. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) spectroscopy are the most prominent techniques here.
'Two-dimensional NMR Spectroscopy' (2D NMR) is based on pulse spectroscopy. This technique is mostly used for the study of chemical interactions accompanied by magnetization transfer. Examples for more diversified spectroscopy techniques are based on homonuclear (COSY, TOCSY, 2D-INADEQUATE, NOESY, ROESY) or heteronuclear correlation (HSQC, HMQC, HMBC).
'Solid State NMR Spectroscopy' analyzes samples with little or no molecular mobility. Dipolar coupling and chemical shift anisotropy are the dominating nuclear physical effects here. Used for example in pharmaceutical analysis.
'Solution State NMR Spectroscopy' is a technique to analyze the structure of samples with a high degree of molecular mobility as polymers, proteins, nucleic acids etc..
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
Chemical Applications of NMR
   by hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu    
  News & More:
New Brain Imaging Technique Identifies Previously Undetected Epileptic Seizure Sites
Friday, 13 November 2015   by www.newswise.com    
Proton MR Spectroscopic Imaging without Water Suppression1
2000   by radiology.rsnajnls.org    
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MRI History
 
Sir Joseph Larmor (1857-1942) developed the equation that the angular frequency of precession of the nuclear spins being proportional to the strength of the magnetic field. [Larmor relationship]
In the 1930's, Isidor Isaac Rabi (Columbia University) succeeded in detecting and measuring single states of rotation of atoms and molecules, and in determining the mechanical and magnetic moments of the nuclei.
Felix Bloch (Stanford University) and Edward Purcell (Harvard University) developed instruments, which could measure the magnetic resonance in bulk material such as liquids and solids. (Both honored with the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1952.) [The birth of the NMR spectroscopy]
In the early 70's, Raymond Damadian (State University of New York) demonstrated with his NMR device, that there are different T1 relaxation times between normal and abnormal tissues of the same type, as well as between different types of normal tissues.
In 1973, Paul Lauterbur (State University of New York) described a new imaging technique that he termed Zeugmatography. By utilizing gradients in the magnetic field, this technique was able to produce a two-dimensional image (back-projection). (Through analysis of the characteristics of the emitted radio waves, their origin could be determined.) Peter Mansfield further developed the utilization of gradients in the magnetic field and the mathematically analysis of these signals for a more useful imaging technique. (Paul C Lauterbur and Peter Mansfield were awarded with the 2003 Nobel Prize in Medicine.)
In 1975, Richard Ernst introduced 2D NMR using phase and frequency encoding, and the Fourier Transform. Instead of Paul Lauterbur's back-projection, he timely switched magnetic field gradients ('NMR Fourier Zeugmatography'). [This basic reconstruction method is the basis of current MRI techniques.]
1977/78: First images could be presented. A cross section through a finger by Peter Mansfield and Andrew A. Maudsley. Peter Mansfield also could present the first image through the abdomen.
In 1977, Raymond Damadian completed (after 7 years) the first MR scanner (Indomitable). In 1978, he founded the FONAR Corporation, which manufactured the first commercial MRI scanner in 1980. Fonar went public in 1981.
1981: Schering submitted a patent application for Gd-DTPA dimeglumine.
1982: The first 'magnetization-transfer' imaging by Robert N. Muller.
In 1983, Toshiba obtained approval from the Ministry of Health and Welfare in Japan for the first commercial MRI system.
In 1984, FONAR Corporation receives FDA approval for its first MRI scanner.
1986: Jürgen Hennig, A. Nauerth, and Hartmut Friedburg (University of Freiburg) introduced RARE (rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement) imaging. Axel Haase, Jens Frahm, Dieter Matthaei, Wolfgang Haenicke, and Dietmar K. Merboldt (Max-Planck-Institute, Göttingen) developed the FLASH (fast low angle shot) sequence.
1988: Schering's MAGNEVIST gets its first approval by the FDA.
In 1991, fMRI was developed independently by the University of Minnesota’s Center for Magnetic Resonance Research (CMRR) and Massachusetts General Hospital’s (MGH) MR Center.
From 1992 to 1997 Fonar was paid for the infringement of it's patents from 'nearly every one of its competitors in the MRI industry including giant multi-nationals as Toshiba, Siemens, Shimadzu, Philips and GE'.
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Images, Movies, Sliders:
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Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
Magnetic Resonance Imaging, History & Introduction
2000   by www.cis.rit.edu    
A Short History of the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
   by www.teslasociety.com    
Fonar Our History
   by www.fonar.com    
  News & More:
Scientists win Nobels for work on MRI
Tuesday, 10 June 2003   by usatoday30.usatoday.com    
2001 Lemelson-MIT Lifetime Achievement Award Winner
   by web.mit.edu    
MRI's inside story
Thursday, 4 December 2003   by www.economist.com    
MRI Resources 
MRI Technician and Technologist Schools - Patient Information - Contrast Agents - Hospitals - Research Labs - MRI Reimbursement
 
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