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Spine MRIMRI Resource Directory:
 - Spine MRI -
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine is a noninvasive procedure to evaluate different types of tissue, including the spinal cord, vertebral disks and spaces between the vertebrae through which the nerves travel, as well as distinguish healthy tissue from diseased tissue.
The cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine MRI should be scanned in individual sections. The scan protocol parameter like e.g. the field of view (FOV), slice thickness and matrix are usually different for cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine MRI, but the method is similar. The standard views in the basic spinal MRI scan to create detailed slices (cross sections) are sagittal T1 weighted and T2 weighted images over the whole body part, and transverse (e.g. multi angle oblique) over the region of interest with different pulse sequences according to the result of the sagittal slices. Additional views or different types of pulse sequences like fat suppression, fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) or diffusion weighted imaging are created dependent on the indication.
Neurological deficit, evidence of radiculopathy, cauda equina compression
Primary tumors or drop metastases
Infection/inflammatory disease, multiple sclerosis
Postoperative evaluation of lumbar spine: disk vs. scar
Evaluation of syrinx
Localized back pain with no radiculopathy (leg pain)

Contrast enhanced MRI techniques delineate infections vs. malignancies, show a syrinx cavity and support to differentiate the postoperative conditions. After surgery for disk disease, significant fibrosis can occur in the spine. This scarring can mimic residual disk herniation. Magnetic resonance myelography evaluates spinal stenosis and various intervertebral discs can be imaged with multi angle oblique techniques. Cine series can be used to show true range of motion studies of parts of the spine. Advanced open MRI devices are developed to perform positional scans in the position of pain or symptom (e.g. Upright™ MRI formerly Stand-Up MRI).
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Anatomic Imaging of the Lumbar Spine  Open this link in a new window

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman

Radiology-tip.comBone Densitometry,  Myelography
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Further Reading:
Newer Sequences for Spinal MR Imaging: Smorgasbord or Succotash of Acronyms?
Cutting Edge Imaging of THE Spine
February 2007   by    
Landmark Independent Study by UCLA School of Medicine Reports Comparison of Dynamic™ Upright® MRI With Static Upright MRI in More Than 1,000 Patients (1,302):
Thursday, 15 November 2007   by    
  News & More:
Discriminating imaging findings of acute osteoporotic vertebral fracture: a prospective multicenter cohort study
Thursday, 9 October 2014   by    
Lumbar spine MRI limited in diagnosing ankylosing spondylitis
Friday, 7 March 2014   by    
MRI Of The Spine Identifies Smoldering Myeloma Patients At High Risk Of Progressing To Multiple Myeloma
Tuesday, 26 August 2014   by    
Intensive training of young tennis players causes spinal damage
Wednesday, 18 July 2007   by    
Imaging Technique for Spinal Cord Injury Shows Promise
Sunday, 22 December 2013   by    
MRI Resources 
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Lumbar Spine MRI
MRI of the lumbar spine, with its multiplanar 3 dimensional imaging capability, is currently the preferred modality for establishing a diagnosis. MRI scans and magnetic resonance myelography have many advantages compared with computed tomography and/or X-ray myelography in evaluating the lumbar spine. MR imaging scans large areas of the spine without ionizing radiation, is noninvasive, not affected by bone artifacts, provides vascular imaging capability, and makes use of safer contrast agents (gadolinium chelate).
Due to the high level of tissue contrast resolution, nerves and discs are clearly visible. MRI is excellent for detecting degenerative disease in the spine. Lumbar spine MRI accurately shows disc disease (prolapsed disc or slipped disc), the level at which disc disease occurs, and if a disc is compressing spinal nerves. Lumbar spine MRI depicts soft tissues, including the cauda equina, spinal cord, ligaments, epidural fat, subarachnoid space, and intervertebral discs. Loss of epidural fat on T1 weighted images, loss of cerebrospinal fluid signal around the dural sac on T2 weighted images and degenerative disc disease are common features of lumbar stenosis.

Common indications for MRI of the lumbar spine:
Neurologic deficits, evidence of radiculopathy, acute spinal cord compression (e.g., sudden bowel/bladder disturbance)
Suspected systemic disorders (primary tumors, drop metastases, osteomyelitis)
Postoperative evaluation of lumbar spine: disk vs. scar
Localized back pain with no radiculopathy (leg pain)
Lumbar spine imaging requires a special spine coil. often used whole spine array coils have the advantage that patients do not need other positioning if also upper parts of the spine should be scanned. Sagittal T1 and T2 weighted FSE sequences are the standard views. With multi angle oblique techniques individually oriented transverse images of each intervertebral disc at different angles can be obtained.

See also the related poll result: 'MRI will have replaced 50% of x-ray exams by'
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Anatomic Imaging of the Lumbar Spine  Open this link in a new window

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman


• View the DATABASE results for 'Lumbar Spine MRI' (6).Open this link in a new window

Further Reading:
Lumbar Spine Stenosis: A Common Cause of Back and Leg Pain
MRI Findings Linked to Effect of Lumbar Spine Surgery
Wednesday, 26 June 2013   by    
Spine imaging after lumbar disc replacement: pitfalls and current recommendations
Tuesday, 21 July 2009   by    
  News & More:
Lumbar spine MRI limited in diagnosing ankylosing spondylitis
Friday, 7 March 2014   by    
How Weight-Bearing MRIs Can Improve Care & Lower Costs While Meeting Milliman Criteria
Friday, 4 October 2013   by    
Lumbar Diskal Cyst Containing Intervertebral Disk Materials
Tuesday, 1 November 2011   by    
A Study of the Morphology of Lumbar Discs in Sitting and Standing Positions Using a 0.5T Open- Configuration MRI(.pdf)
2001   by    
MRI Resources 
MR Myelography - Fluorescence - - Services and Supplies - Mass Spectrometry - MRA
Cervical Spine MRI
Cervical spine MRI is a suitable tool in the assessment of all cervical spine (vertebrae C1 - C7) segments (computed tomography (CT) images may be unsatisfactory close to the thoracic spine due to shoulder artifacts). The cervical spine is particularly susceptible to degenerative problems caused by the complex anatomy and its large range of motion.
Advantages of magnetic resonance imaging MRI are the high soft tissue contrast (particularly important in diagnostics of the spinal cord), the ability to display the entire spine in sagittal views and the capacity of 3D visualization. Magnetic resonance myelography is a useful supplement to conventional MRI examinations in the investigation of cervical stenosis. Myelographic sequences result in MR images with high contrast that are similar in appearance to conventional myelograms. Additionally, open MRI studies provide the possibility of weight-bearing MRI scan to evaluate structural positional and kinetic changes of the cervical spine.
Indications of cervical spine MRI scans include the assessment of soft disc herniations, suspicion of disc hernia recurrence after operation, cervical spondylosis, osteophytes, joint arthrosis, spinal canal lesions (tumors, multiple sclerosis, etc.), bone diseases (infection, inflammation, tumoral infiltration) and paravertebral spaces.
State-of-the-art phased array spine coils and high performance MRI machines provide high image quality and short scan time. Imaging protocols for the cervical spine includes sagittal T1 weighted and T2 weighted sequences with 3-4 mm slice thickness and axial slices; usually contiguous from C2 through T1. Additionally, T2 fat suppressed and T1 post contrast images are often useful in spine imaging.
See also Lumbar Spine MRI.

• View the DATABASE results for 'Cervical Spine MRI' (2).Open this link in a new window

• View the NEWS results for 'Cervical Spine MRI' (1).Open this link in a new window.
Further Reading:
  News & More:
Pre-Op MRI Predicts Outcome of Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy
Wednesday, 19 June 2013   by    
Imaging Technique for Spinal Cord Injury Shows Promise
Sunday, 22 December 2013   by    
In Vivo 3-D Cervical Spine Kinematics Demonstrated
Thursday, 19 May 2011   by    
MRI Images at a 45-Degree Angle Through The Cervic al Neural Forami na:A Technique For Improved Visualization(.pdf)
2006   by    
Searchterm 'Spine MRI' was also found in the following services: 
News  (17)  Resources  (7)  Forum  (4)  
Multi Angle Oblique
The multi angle oblique technique gives the ability to display anatomical structures in a variety of planes from the data acquired in just one MRI scan. This technique is useful, for example in lumbar spine MRI obtaining images of each intervertebral disc, individually oriented at a different angle, to better recognize herniation or to compare degenerative changes.
This technique is more difficult in the cervical spine MRI region because of the small vertebra and therefore a short distance between the multi angle oblique planes. In case of too short distance or overlapping slices the crosstalk (artifact) destroys the signal with reduced image quality.

• View the DATABASE results for 'Multi Angle Oblique' (4).Open this link in a new window

MRI Resources 
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Contrast Enhanced MRIInfoSheet: - Contrast Agents - 
Intro, Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Contrast Enhanced MRI -
Contrast enhanced MRI is a commonly used procedure in magnetic resonance imaging. The need to more accurately characterize different types of lesions and to detect all malignant lesions is the main reason for the use of intravenous contrast agents.
Some methods are available to improve the contrast of different tissues. The focus of dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) is on contrast kinetics with demands for spatial resolution dependent on the application. DCE-MR imaging is used for diagnosis of cancer (see also liver imaging, abdominal imaging, breast MRI, dynamic scanning) as well as for diagnosis of cardiac infarction (see perfusion imaging, cardiac MRI). Quantitative DCE-MRI requires special data acquisition techniques and analysis software.
Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) allows the visualization of vessels and the temporal resolution provides a separation of arteries and veins. These methods share the need for acquisition methods with high temporal and spatial resolution.
Double contrast administration (combined contrast enhanced (CCE) MRI) uses two contrast agents with complementary mechanisms e.g., superparamagnetic iron oxide to darken the background liver and gadolinium to brighten the vessels. A variety of different categories of contrast agents are currently available for clinical use.
Reasons for the use of contrast agents in MRI scans are:
Relaxation characteristics of normal and pathologic tissues are not always different enough to produce obvious differences in signal intensity.
Pathology that is sometimes occult on unenhanced images becomes obvious in the presence of contrast.
Enhancement significantly increases MRI sensitivity.
In addition to improving delineation between normal and abnormal tissues, the pattern of contrast enhancement can improve diagnostic specificity by facilitating characterization of the lesion(s) in question.
Contrast can yield physiologic and functional information in addition to lesion delineation.
Imaging of arteries and veins with contrast enhanced angiography (CE MRA).

Common Indications:
Brain MRI : Preoperative/pretreatment evaluation and postoperative evaluation of brain tumor therapy, CNS infections, noninfectious inflammatory disease and meningeal disease.
Spine MRI : Infection/inflammatory disease, primary tumors, drop metastases, initial evaluation of syrinx, postoperative evaluation of the lumbar spine: disk vs. scar.
Breast MRI : Detection of breast cancer in case of dense breasts, implants, malignant lymph nodes, or scarring after treatment for breast cancer, diagnosis of a suspicious breast lesion in order to avoid biopsy.

For Ultrasound Imaging (USI) see Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound at See also Blood Pool Agents, Myocardial Late Enhancement, Cardiovascular Imaging, Contrast Enhanced MR Venography, Contrast Resolution, Dynamic Scanning, Lung Imaging, Hepatobiliary Contrast Agents, Contrast Medium and MRI Guided Biopsy.

Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Delayed Myocardial Contrast Enhancement from Infarct  Open this link in a new window

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 Left Circumflex Ischemia First-pass Contrast Enhancement  Open this link in a new window

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman

 Normal Lung Gd Perfusion MRI  Open this link in a new window
 MRI of the Brain Stem with Temoral Bone and Auditory System  Open this link in a new window
SlidersSliders Overview

 Breast MRI Images T1 Pre - Post Contrast  Open this link in a new window
Radiology-tip.comContrast Enhanced Computed Tomography
Radiology-tip.comContrast Enhanced Ultrasound,  Contrast Enhanced Doppler Imaging

• View the DATABASE results for 'Contrast Enhanced MRI' (14).Open this link in a new window

• View the NEWS results for 'Contrast Enhanced MRI' (8).Open this link in a new window.
Further Reading:
Optimal k-Space Sampling for Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI with an Application to MR Renography
Thursday, 5 November 2009   by    
Background MRI Enhancement Up in Premenopausal Breast Cancer
Friday, 7 June 2013   by    
Bringing innovative technologies together
Monday, 18 November 2013   by    
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MRI Contrast Agent Analysis from Bruker
Sunday, 11 August 2013   by    
CMC Contrast Granted Orphan Drug Designation by the FDA for its Liver Specific MRI Contrast Media CMC-001
Wednesday, 27 November 2013   by    
All-organic MRI Contrast Agent Tested In Mice
Monday, 24 September 2012   by    
A groundbreaking new graphene-based MRI contrast agent
Friday, 8 June 2012   by    
Novel Imaging Technique Improves Prostate Cancer Detection
Tuesday, 6 January 2015   by    
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PET-MRI is :
a valuable new tool 
worth to develop more 
too expensive 
only for research 
the replacement for PET-CT 
for vets only 


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