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Shoulder MRI
 
MRI of the shoulder with its excellent soft tissue discrimination, and high spatial resolution offers the best noninvasive way to study the shoulder. MRI images of the bone, muscles and tendons of the glenohumeral joint can be obtained in any oblique planes and projections. MRI gives excellent depiction of rotator cuff tears, injuries to the biceps tendon and damage to the glenoid labrum. Shoulder MRI is better than ultrasound imaging at depicting structural changes such as osteophytic spurs, ligament thickening, and acromial shape that may have predisposed to tendon degeneration.
A dedicated shoulder coil and careful patient positioning in external rotation with the shoulder as close as reasonably possible to the center of the magnet is necessary for a good image quality. If possible, the opposite shoulder should be lifted up, so that the patient lies on the imaged shoulder in order to rotate and fix this shoulder to reduce motion during breathing.
Axial, coronal oblique, and sagittal oblique proton density with fat suppression, T2 and T1 provide an assessment of the rotator cuff, biceps, deltoid, acromio-clavicular joint, the glenohumeral joint and surrounding large structures. If a labral injury is suspected, a Fat Sat gradient echo sequence is recommended. In some cases, a direct MR shoulder arthrogram with intra-articular injection of dilute gadolinium or an indirect arthrogram with imaging 20 min. after intravenous injection may be helpful.
See also Imaging of the Extremities.
 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Anatomic Imaging of the Shoulder  Open this link in a new window
      

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman

 
Radiology-tip.comArthrography
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Radiology-tip.comLow Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound,  Musculoskeletal and Joint Ultrasound
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• Related Searches:
    • Fat Suppression
    • Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI
    • Medical Imaging
    • Knee MRI
    • Imaging of the Extremities
 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
MRI of little value in shoulder pain
Tuesday, 29 October 2013   by www.rheumatologyupdate.com.au    
  News & More:
MRI costs wide-ranging
Thursday, 14 April 2011   by www.chieftain.com    
MRE Could Provide A Definitive Diagnosis For People With Muscle Pain, Study Shows
Friday, 30 November 2007   by www.sciencedaily.com    
Peer-Reviewed Study Concludes The FONAR UPRIGHT™ MRI Could Serve as the “Standard Procedure of Care” for Pediatric Shoulder Malady
Wednesday, 30 May 2007   by www.fonar.com    
Shoulder pain? Don't rush to get an MRI
Thursday, 10 October 2013   by bangordailynews.com    
Searchterm 'Shoulder MRI' was also found in the following service: 
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Radiology  (1) Open this link in a new window
Imaging of the ExtremitiesMRI Resource Directory:
 - Musculoskeletal and Joint MRI -
 
Knee and shoulder MRI exams are the most commonly requested musculoskeletal MRI scans. Other MR imaging of the extremities includes hips, ankles, elbows, and wrists. Orthopedic imaging requires very high spatial resolution for reliable small structure definition and therefore places extremely high demands on SNR.
Exact presentation of joint pathology expects robust and reliable fat suppression, often under difficult conditions like off-center FOV, imaging at the edge of the field homogeneity or in regions with complex magnetic susceptibility.
MR examinations can evaluate meniscal dislocations, muscle fiber tears, tendon disruptions, tendinitis, and diagnose bone tumors and soft tissue masses. MR can also demonstrate acute fractures that are radiographically impossible to see. Evaluation of articular cartilage for traumatic injury or assessment of degenerative disease represents an imaging challenge, which can be overcome by high field MRI applications. Currently, fat-suppressed 3D spoiled gradient echo sequences and density weighted fast spin echo sequences are the gold-standard techniques used to assess articular cartilage.
Open MRI procedures allow the kinematic imaging of joints, which provides added value to any musculoskeletal MRI practice. This technique demonstrates the actual functional impingements or positional subluxations of joints. In knee MRI examinations, the kinematical patellar study can show patellofemoral joint abnormalities.
See also Open MRI, Knee MRI, Low Field MRI.
 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 MRI - Anatomic Imaging of the Foot  Open this link in a new window
    
SlidersSliders Overview

 Anatomic Imaging of the Shoulder  Open this link in a new window
      

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman

 MRI - Anatomic Imaging of the Ankle 2  Open this link in a new window
    
SlidersSliders Overview

 Anatomic MRI of the Knee 1  Open this link in a new window
    
SlidersSliders Overview

 
Radiology-tip.comJoint Scintigraphy,  Arthrography
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Radiology-tip.comSonography,  Musculoskeletal and Joint Ultrasound
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• View the DATABASE results for 'Imaging of the Extremities' (5).Open this link in a new window

 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
Optimizing Musculoskeletal MR
   by rad.usuhs.mil    
VALUE OF 3D T1W & STIR MRI SEQUENCES IN DIAGNOSING EROSIONS IN RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS
   by www.bocaradiology.com    
Comparison of New Methods for Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Articular Cartilage(.pdf)
2002
  News & More:
MRI technique allows study of wrist in motion
Monday, 6 January 2014   by www.healthimaging.com    
Study: MRA bests MRI in evaluation of wrist tears
Saturday, 12 May 2012   by www.healthimaging.com    
Musculoskeletal MRI at 3.0 T: Relaxation Times and Image Contrast
Sunday, 1 August 2004   by www.ajronline.org    
MRI Resources 
Used and Refurbished MRI Equipment - MR Myelography - Supplies - Functional MRI - Service and Support - Raman Spectroscopy
 
Opera (E-SCAN™ XQ)InfoSheet: - Devices -
Intro, 
Types of Magnets, 
Overview, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Devices -
 
www.esaote.com/products/MRI/eScanXQ/products1.htm

Manufactured by Esaote S.p.A.; a low field open MRI scanner with permanent magnet for orthopedic use. The outstanding feature of this MRI system is a patient friendly design with 24 cm diameter, which allows the imaging of extremities and small body parts like shoulder MRI. The power consumption is around 1.3 kW and the needed minimum floor space is an area of 16 sq m.
At RSNA 2006 Hologic Inc. introduced a new dedicated extremity MRI scanner, the Opera. Manufactured by Esaote is the Opera a redesign of Esaote’s 0.2 Tesla E-Scan XQ platform, which now enables complete imaging of all extremities, including hip and shoulder applications. 'Real-time positioning' reportedly speeds patient setup and reduces exam times.
Esaote North America and Hologic Inc are the U.S. distributors of this MRI device.


Device Information and Specification
CLINICAL APPLICATION Dedicated extremity
CONFIGURATION Open MRI
SURFACE COILS Extremity, shoulder (2), flex coil, knee dual phased array, ankle//foot dual phased array, hand//wrist dual phased array coil
PULSE SEQUENCES SE, GE, IR, STIR, FSE, 3D CE, GE-STIR, 3D GE, ME, TME, HSE
IMAGING MODES Single, multislice, volume study, fast scan, multi slab
TR 10 - 5000 msec
TE 6 - 110 msec
SINGLE SLICE 0.6 sec/image
MULTISLICE 0.6 sec/image
FOV 17 cm
SLICE THICKNESS 2D: 2 mm - 10 mm;
3D: 0.6 mm - 10 mm
DISPLAY MATRIX 512 x 512
MEASURING MATRIX 256 x 256 maximum
PIXEL INTENSITY 4096 gray lvls, 256 lvls in 3D
SPATIAL RESOLUTION 0.4 mm
MAGNET TYPE Permanent
BORE DIAMETER
or W x H
24 cm H, open
MAGNET WEIGHT 2250 kg, 4960 lbs
H*W*D 79 x 65 x 85 cm
POWER REQUIREMENTS 2,0 kW; 110/220 V single phase
FIELD STRENGTH 0.2 T
STRENGTH 20 mT/m
5-GAUSS FRINGE FIELD, radial/axial 150 cm/130 cm
SHIMMING Passive

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• View the DATABASE results for 'Opera (E-SCAN™ XQ)' (2).Open this link in a new window

 
Further Reading:
  News & More:
E-Scan, 510(k) Summary(.pdf)
Saturday, 15 May 2004   by www.accessdata.fda.gov    
Searchterm 'Shoulder MRI' was also found in the following services: 
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MAGNETOM ESSENZA
 
From Siemens Medical Systems;
www.healthcare.siemens.com/magnetic-resonance-imaging/0-35-to-1-5t-mri-scanner/magnetom-essenza/ Received FDA clearance in 2007.
The MAGNETOM Essenza is designed to combine high system performance with simple installation and power requirements to provide optimal operating costs for limited budgets. The standard system has up to 25 integrated coil elements and 8 independent radio frequency channels. Tim allows the combination of up to 4 different coils that reduce patient and coil repositioning.
The 1.5 Tesla system is designated for a complete range of clinical applications, including neurology, orthopedics, body imaging, angiography, cardiology, breast imaging, oncology and pediatric MRI.


Device Information and Specification
CLINICAL APPLICATION Whole Body
CONFIGURATION Ultra-short bore
FIELD STRENGTH 1.5 Tesla
SURFACE COILS Head, spine, torso/ body coil, neurovascular, cardiac, neck, and multi-purpose flex coils. Peripheral vascular, breast, shoulder, knee, wrist, foot//ankle, TMJ optional.
CHANNELS (min. / max. configuration) 8, 16
SPECTROSCOPY Chemical shift imaging and single volume spectroscopy
IMAGING TECHNIQUES iPAT, mSENSE and GRAPPA (image, k-space), noncontrast angiography, radial motion compensation
MINIMUM TR 3-D GRE: 1.58 (256 matrix)
MINIMUM TE 3-D GRE: 0.5 (256 matrix)
FOV 0.5 - 45 cm
BORE DIAMETER
At isocenter: 60 cm
TABLE CAPACITY 200 kg
MAGNET WEIGHT (gantry included) 4350 kg in operation
DIMENSION H*W*D (gantry included) 145 x 226 x 216 cm
5-GAUSS FRINGE FIELD 2.5 m / 4.0 m
MAGNET TYPE Superconducting
CRYOGEN USE Zero boil off rate, approx. 10 years
COOLING SYSTEM Water; single cryogen, 2 stage refrigeration
SLEW RATE up to 100 T/m/s
MAX. AMPLITUDE, RISE TIME 30 mT/m, 300 msec to 10 mT/m
SHIMMING Passive, active; first order standard second order optional
POWER REQUIREMENTS 380 / 400 / 420 / 440 / 460 / 480 V, 3-phase + ground; 45 kVA
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
Magnetom Essenza - Typical Room Plan
   by ftp.siemensmedical.com    
Searchterm 'Shoulder MRI' was also found in the following service: 
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Radiology  (1) Open this link in a new window
MAGNETOM Skyra
 
From Siemens Medical Systems;
www.healthcare.siemens.com/magnetic-resonance-imaging/0-35-to-1-5t-mri-scanner/magnetom-skyra/ Received FDA clearance in 2010.
MAGNETOM Skyra is a top-of-the-line, patient friendly wide bore 3 Tesla MRI system.
The system is equipped with the Tim 4G and Dot system (Total imaging matrix and Day optimizing throughput), to enhance both productivity and image quality with the complete range of advanced applications for clinical routine and research. Tim 4G features lighter, trimmer MRI coils that take up less space inside the magnet but deliver a high coil element density with increased signal to noise ratio and the possibility to use high iPAT factors.


Device Information and Specification
CLINICAL APPLICATION Whole Body
CONFIGURATION Open bore
FIELD STRENGTH 3 Tesla
SURFACE COILS Head, spine, torso/ body coil, neurovascular, cardiac, neck, shoulder, knee, wrist, foot//ankle and multi-purpose flex coils. Peripheral vascular, breast, shoulder.
CHANNELS (min. / max. configuration) 48, 64, 128
SPECTROSCOPY Chemical shift imaging, single voxel spectroscopy
IMAGING TECHNIQUES iPAT, mSENSE and GRAPPA (image, k-space),CAIPIRINHA (k-space), noncontrast angiography, plaque imaging, radial motion compensation, Dixon
MINIMUM TR 3D T1 spoiled GRE: 0.95 (256 matrix)
MINIMUM TE 3D T1 spoiled GRE: 0.22 (256 matrix), Ultra-short TE
FOV 0.5 - 50 cm
BORE DIAMETER
or W x H
At isocenter: L-R 70 cm, A-P (with table) 55 cm
TABLE CAPACITY 250 kg
MAGNET WEIGHT (gantry included) 5768 kg
DIMENSION H*W*D (gantry included) 173 x 231 x 219 cm
5-GAUSS FRINGE FIELD 2.6 m / 4.6 m
MAGNET TYPE Superconducting
CRYOGEN USE Zero boil off rate, approx. 10 years
COOLING SYSTEM Water; single cryogen, 2 stage refrigeration
SLEW RATE up to 200 T/m/s
MAX. AMPLITUDE 45 mT/m
SHIMMING 3 linear with 20 coils, 5 nonlinear 2nd-order
POWER REQUIREMENTS 380 / 400 / 420 / 440 / 460 / 480 V, 3-phase + ground; 110 kVA
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