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Result : Searchterm 'Pixel' found in 1 term [] and 67 definitions []
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Pixel
 
A pixel is a picture element (pix, abbreviation of pictures + element). Tomographic images are composed of several pixels.
The corresponding size of the pixel may be smaller than the actual spatial resolution. Pixels do not have a fixed size; their diameters are generally measured in micrometers (microns). Although the pixel is not a unit of measurement itself, pixels are often used to measure the resolution (or sharpness) of images. As a hypothetical example, a 600 x 1000 pixel image has 4 times the pixel density and is thus 4 times sharper than a 300 x 500 pixel image, assuming the two images have the same physical size.
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
How Many? A Dictionary of Units of Measurement © Russ Rowlett and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Wednesday, 21 March 2001   by www.unc.edu    
  News & More:
Micro-MRI Principles, Strengths, and Weaknesses
Tuesday, 10 January 2017   by www.news-medical.net    
New Paradigm for Nanoscale Resolution MRI Experimentally Achieved
Friday, 27 September 2013   by www.sciencedaily.com    
Quantity, not just quality, in new Stanford brain scan method
Monday, 4 November 2013   by news.stanford.edu    
Magnetic Resonance Imaging, History & Introduction
2000   by www.cis.rit.edu    
Searchterm 'Pixel' was also found in the following services: 
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Radiology  (15) Open this link in a new windowUltrasound  (8) Open this link in a new window
Flow QuantificationInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.
 
Quantification relies on inflow effects or on spin phase effects and therefore on quantifying the phase shifts of moving tissues relative to stationary tissues.
With properly designed pulse sequences (see phase contrast sequence) the pixel by pixel phase represents a map of the velocities measured in the imaging plane. Spin phase effect-based flow quantification schemes use pulse sequences specifically designed so that the phase angle in a pixel obtained upon measuring the signal is proportional to the velocity. As the relation of the phase angle to the velocity is defined by the gradient amplitudes and the gradient switch-on times, which are known, velocity can be determined quantitatively on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Once, this velocity is known, the flow in a vessel can be determined by multiplying the pixel area with the pixel velocity. Summing this quantity for all pixels inside a vessel results in a flow volume, which is measured, e.g. in ml/sec.
Flow related enhancement-based flow quantification techniques (entry phenomena) work because spins in a section perpendicular to the vessel of interest are labeled with some radio frequency RF pulse. Positional readout of the tagged spins some time T later will show the distance D they have traveled.
For constant flow, the velocity v is obtained by dividing the distance D by the time T : v = D/T. Variations of this basic principle have been proposed to measure flow, but the standard methods to measure velocity and flow use the spin phase effect.
Cardiac MRI sequences are used to encode images with velocity information. These pulse sequences permit quantification of flow-related physiologic data, such as blood flow in the aorta or pulmonary arteries and the peak velocity across stenotic valves.
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MRI Resources 
Devices - Manufacturers - Cochlear Implant - Universities - Chemistry - Resources
 
Field Even Echo Rephasing
 
The FEER method was the first clinically useful flow quantification method using phase effects, from which all spin phase related flow quantification techniques currently in use are derived.
In this sequence a gradient echo is measured after a gradient with flow compensation. The measured signal phase should be zero for all pixels. A deviation from gradient symmetry by shifting the gradient ramp slightly away from the symmetry condition will impart a defined phase shift to the magnetization vectors associated with spins from pixels with flow.
Slight stable variations in the magnetic field across the imaging volume will prevent the phase angle from being uniformly zero throughout the volume in the flow-compensated image. The first image (acquired without gradient shift) serves as reference, defining the values of all pixel phase angles in the flow (motion) compensated sequence. Ensuing images with gradient phase shifts imparted in each of the 3 spatial axes will then permit measurement of the 3 components of the velocity vector v = (vx, vy, vz) by calculating the respective phases px, py and pz by simply subtracting the pixel phases measured in the compensated image from the 3 images with a well defined velocity sensitization.
The determination of all 3 components of the velocity vector requires the measurement of 4 images.
The phase quantification requires an imaging time four times longer than the simple measurement of a phase image and associated magnitude image. If only one arbitrary flow direction is of interest, it suffices to acquire the reference image plus one image velocity sensitized in the arbitrary direction of interest.
See also Flow Quantification.
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Partial Volume AveragingInfoSheet: - Artifacts - 
Case Studies, 
Reduction Index, 
etc.
 
This happens whenever a structure is only partly within the imaging section, pixel or voxel. The consequence is that the signals of the structure and the adjacent or surrounding structures present in the section, pixel or voxel are averaged.
As a result erroneous pixel or voxel signal values result. This can lead to diagnostic misinterpretations.
See also Partial Volume Artifact.
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Searchterm 'Pixel' was also found in the following services: 
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Radiology  (15) Open this link in a new windowUltrasound  (8) Open this link in a new window
Voxel
 
A voxel is a volume element (volumetric and pixel) representing a value in the three dimensional space, corresponding to a pixel for a given slice thickness. Voxels are frequently used in the visualization and analysis of medical data. The Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI pixel intensity is proportional to the signal intensity of the appropriate voxel.
See also Volumetric Imaging.
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• View the DATABASE results for 'Voxel' (35).Open this link in a new window

 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
Magnetic Resonance Imaging, History & Introduction
2000   by www.cis.rit.edu    
Voxel-based structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of patients with early onset schizophrenia
Monday, 22 December 2008   by 7thspace.com    
  News & More:
Quantity, not just quality, in new Stanford brain scan method
Monday, 4 November 2013   by news.stanford.edu    
MRI Resources 
Stimulator pool - Claustrophobia - - Contrast Enhanced MRI - Pediatric and Fetal MRI - Veterinary MRI
 
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