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Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI
 
(MRI) Magnetic resonance imaging is a noninvasive medical imaging technique that uses the interaction between radio frequency pulses, a strong magnetic field and body tissue to obtain images of slices/planes from inside the body. These magnets generate fields from approx. 2000 times up to 30000 times stronger than that of the Earth. The use of nuclear magnetic resonance principles produces extremely detailed pictures of the body tissue without the need for x-ray exposure and gives diagnostic information of various organs.
Measured are mobile hydrogen nuclei (protons are the hydrogen atoms of water, the 'H' in H20), the majority of elements in the body. Only a small part of them contribute to the measured signal, caused by their different alignment in the magnetic field. Protons are capable of absorbing energy if exposed to short radio wave pulses (electromagnetic energy) at their resonance frequency. After the absorption of this energy, the nuclei release this energy so that they return to their initial state of equilibrium.
This transmission of energy by the nuclei as they return to their initial state is what is observed as the MRI signal. The subtle differing characteristic of that signal from different tissues combined with complex mathematical formulas analyzed on modern computers is what enables MRI imaging to distinguish between various organs. Any imaging plane, or slice, can be projected, and then stored or printed.
The measured signal intensity depends jointly on the spin density and the relaxation times (T1 time and T2 time), with their relative importance depending on the particular imaging technique and choice of interpulse times. Any motion such as blood flow, respiration, etc. also affects the image brightness.
Magnetic resonance imaging is particularly sensitive in assessing anatomical structures, organs and soft tissues for the detection and diagnosis of a broad range of pathological conditions. MRI pictures can provide contrast between benign and pathological tissues and may be used to stage cancers as well as to evaluate the response to treatment of malignancies. The need for biopsy or exploratory surgery can be eliminated in some cases, and can result in earlier diagnosis of many diseases.
See also MRI History and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI).
 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 CE-MRA of the Carotid Arteries Colored MIP  Open this link in a new window
    
SlidersSliders Overview

 Anatomic Imaging of the Lumbar Spine  Open this link in a new window
      

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman

 Normal Dual Inversion Fast Spin-echo  Open this link in a new window
      

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman

 Breast MRI Images T2 And T1 Pre - Post Contrast  Open this link in a new window
 Anatomic Imaging of the Shoulder  Open this link in a new window
      

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman

 
Radiology-tip.comConventional Radiography,  Computed Tomography
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Radiology-tip.comUltrasound Imaging,  Ultrasound Imaging Procedures
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• Related Searches:
    • MRI Scan
    • Proton
    • Brain MRI
    • Breast MRI
    • Spine MRI
 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
A Short History of the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
   by www.teslasociety.com    
MRI's inside story
Thursday, 4 December 2003   by www.economist.com    
On the Horizon - Next Generation MRI
Wednesday, 23 October 2013   by thefutureofthings.com    
  News & More:
The 2003 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
2003   by www.nobel.se    
New imaging technology promising for several types of cancer
Thursday, 29 August 2013   by medicalxpress.com    
Study Shows MRI Can Be Used for Orthodontic Imaging
Monday, 12 August 2013   by www.sbwire.com    
MRI method for measuring MS progression validated
Thursday, 19 December 2013   by www.eurekalert.org    
MRI technique allows study of wrist in motion
Monday, 6 January 2014   by www.healthimaging.com    
MRI Resources 
Education - Colonography - Chemistry - Homepages - Movies - Stimulator pool
 
Bird Cage CoilInfoSheet: - Coils - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Coils -
 
A RF coil, often a transmit receive coil with a number of wires running along the z-direction, arranged to give a cosine current variation around the circumference of the coil, which looks like a bird cage. The bird cage coil works on a different principle to conventionally tuned local and surround coils in that it behaves like a tuned transmission line with one complete cycle of standing wave around the circumference. The frequency supply is generated by an oscillator, which is modulated to form a shaped pulse by a product detector controlled by the waveform generator. The signal must be amplified to 1000's of watts. This can be done using either solid state electronics, valves or a combination of both.
The bird cage coil design provides the best field homogeneity of all RF imaging coils.
One advantage is that it is simple to produce an exceedingly uniform B1 radio frequency field over most of the coil's volume, with the result of images with a high degree of uniformity.
A second advantage is that nodes with zero voltage occur 90° away from the driven part of the coil, thus facilitating the introduction of a second signal in quadrature, which produces a circularly polarized radio frequency field.
This type of volume coil is used for brain (head) MRI, or MR imaging of joints, such as the wrist or knees.

See also the related poll result: '3rd party coils are better than the original manufacturer coils'
 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Brain MRI Images T1  Open this link in a new window
 Anatomic MRI of the Knee 1  Open this link in a new window
    
SlidersSliders Overview

 MRI of the Brain Stem with Temoral Bone and Auditory System  Open this link in a new window
    
SlidersSliders Overview

 
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• View the DATABASE results for 'Bird Cage Coil' (4).Open this link in a new window

 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
HEAD AND NECK MRI GRADIENT COIL DESIGN
Thursday, 26 August 1999   by www.imaging.robarts.ca    
System Architecture
2003   by www.revisemri.com    
  News & More:
On the Horizon - Next Generation MRI
Wednesday, 23 October 2013   by thefutureofthings.com    
TOSHIBA INTRODUCES 32 ELEMENT COILS FOR ITS VANTAGE TITAN MR SYSTEMS
Tuesday, 9 November 2010   by medical.toshiba.com    
MRI Resources 
Manufacturers - MR Myelography - Implant and Prosthesis - Intraoperative MRI - Shoulder MRI - Pacemaker
 
Artirem®InfoSheet: - Contrast Agents - 
Intro, Overview, 
Characteristics, 
Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Contrast Agents -
 
Artirem®, the arthrography-specific contrast agent for MRI is a dilute form of Dotarem® with a less concentration of Gd (1:200). Artirem® has to be injected directly into the joints for better visualization and delimitation, of the ligament and tendon structures in particular.

Drug Information and Specification
NAME OF COMPOUND Gadoterate meglumine, Gd-DOTA
DEVELOPER Guerbet S.A.
CENTRAL MOIETY Gd2+
CONTRAST EFFECT T1, Predominantly positive enhancement
RELAXIVITY r1=3.4, r2=4.8, B0=1.0T
PHARMACOKINETIC Intravascular, extracellular, renal excretion
CONCENTRATION 0,0025 mmol/ml
PREPARATION Finished product
INDICATION Arthrography
DEVELOPMENT STAGE For sale
DISTRIBUTOR See below
PRESENTATION Pre-filled syringes of 20 mL
DO NOT RELY ON THE INFORMATION PROVIDED HERE, THEY ARE NOT A SUBSTITUTE FOR THE ACCOMPANYING PACKAGE INSERT!

Distribution Information
TERRITORY TRADE NAME DEVELOPMENT
STAGE
DISTRIBUTOR
EU Dotarem® for sale Guerbet S.A.
France, Switzerland Artirem® for sale Guerbet S.A.
Australia Dotarem® for sale

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• View the DATABASE results for 'Artirem®' (4).Open this link in a new window

Searchterm 'Joint MRI' was also found in the following service: 
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News  (29)  
 
Cervical Spine MRI
 
Cervical spine MRI is a suitable tool in the assessment of all cervical spine (vertebrae C1 - C7) segments (computed tomography (CT) images may be unsatisfactory close to the thoracic spine due to shoulder artifacts). The cervical spine is particularly susceptible to degenerative problems caused by the complex anatomy and its large range of motion.
Advantages of magnetic resonance imaging MRI are the high soft tissue contrast (particularly important in diagnostics of the spinal cord), the ability to display the entire spine in sagittal views and the capacity of 3D visualization. Magnetic resonance myelography is a useful supplement to conventional MRI examinations in the investigation of cervical stenosis. Myelographic sequences result in MR images with high contrast that are similar in appearance to conventional myelograms. Additionally, open MRI studies provide the possibility of weight-bearing MRI scan to evaluate structural positional and kinetic changes of the cervical spine.
Indications of cervical spine MRI scans include the assessment of soft disc herniations, suspicion of disc hernia recurrence after operation, cervical spondylosis, osteophytes, joint arthrosis, spinal canal lesions (tumors, multiple sclerosis, etc.), bone diseases (infection, inflammation, tumoral infiltration) and paravertebral spaces.
State-of-the-art phased array spine coils and high performance MRI machines provide high image quality and short scan time. Imaging protocols for the cervical spine includes sagittal T1 weighted and T2 weighted sequences with 3-4 mm slice thickness and axial slices; usually contiguous from C2 through T1. Additionally, T2 fat suppressed and T1 post contrast images are often useful in spine imaging.
See also Lumbar Spine MRI.
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• View the DATABASE results for 'Cervical Spine MRI' (2).Open this link in a new window


• View the NEWS results for 'Cervical Spine MRI' (1).Open this link in a new window.
 
Further Reading:
  News & More:
Pre-Op MRI Predicts Outcome of Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy
Wednesday, 19 June 2013   by www.doctorslounge.com    
Imaging Technique for Spinal Cord Injury Shows Promise
Sunday, 22 December 2013   by www.wauwatosanow.com    
In Vivo 3-D Cervical Spine Kinematics Demonstrated
Thursday, 19 May 2011   by www.doctorslounge.com    
MRI Images at a 45-Degree Angle Through The Cervic al Neural Forami na:A Technique For Improved Visualization(.pdf)
2006   by www.painphysicianjournal.com    
MRI Resources 
Sequences - Software - Guidance - MRI Reimbursement - Implant and Prosthesis pool - General
 
Fat SuppressionForum -
related threads
 
Fat suppression is the process of utilizing specific MRI parameters to remove the deleterious effects of fat from the resulting images, e.g. with STIR, FAT SAT sequences, water selective (PROSET WATS - water only selection, also FATS - fat only selection possible) excitation techniques, or pulse sequences based on the Dixon method.
Spin magnetization can be modulated by using special RF pulses. CHESS or its variations like SPIR, SPAIR (Spectral Selection Attenuated Inversion Recovery) and FAT SAT use frequency selective excitation pulses, which produce fat saturation.
Fat suppression techniques are nearly used in all body parts and belong to every standard MRI protocol of joints like knee, shoulder, hips, etc.


Image Guidance
Imaging of, e.g. the foot can induce bad fat suppression with SPIR/FAT SAT due to the asymmetric volume of this body part. The volume of the foot alters the magnetic field to a different degree than the smaller volume of the lower leg affecting the protons there. There is only a small band of tissue where the fat protons are precessing at the frequency expected, resulting in frequency selective fat saturation working only in that area. This can be corrected by volume shimming or creating a more symmetrical volume being imaged with water bags.
Even with their longer scan time and motion sensitivity, STIR (short T1//tau inversion recovery) sequences are often the better choice to suppress fat. STIR images are also preferred because of the decreased sensitivity to field inhomogeneities, permitting larger fields of views when compared to fat suppressed images and the ability to image away from the isocenter.
See also Knee MRI.
Recently introduced Dixon turbo spin echo (fast spin echo) sequences can deliver a significant better fat suppression than conventional TSE//FSE imaging.

 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Shoulder Axial T2 FatSat FRFSE  Open this link in a new window
    

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 MRI Orbita T2 FatSat  Open this link in a new window
    
 Knee MRI Sagittal STIR 001  Open this link in a new window
 MRI - Anatomic Imaging of the Ankle 3  Open this link in a new window
    
SlidersSliders Overview

 
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• View the DATABASE results for 'Fat Suppression' (28).Open this link in a new window

 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
Techniques of Fat Suppression(.pdf)
   by cds.ismrm.org    
  News & More:
Enhanced Fast GRadient Echo 3-Dimensional (efgre3D) or THRIVE
   by www.mri.tju.edu    
Ultrashort echo time (UTE) MRI of the spine in thalassaemia
February 2004   by bjr.birjournals.org    
MRI Resources 
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