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Interpulse Times
 
(T) Times between successive RF pulses used in pulse sequences. Particularly important are the inversion time (TI) in inversion recovery, and the time between 90° pulse and the subsequent 180° pulse to produce a spin echo, which will be approximately one half the spin echo time(TE). The time between repetitions of pulse sequences is the repetition time(TR).
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Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI
 
(MRI) Magnetic resonance imaging is a noninvasive medical imaging technique that uses the interaction between radio frequency pulses, a strong magnetic field and body tissue to obtain images of slices/planes from inside the body. These magnets generate fields from approx. 2000 times up to 30000 times stronger than that of the Earth. The use of nuclear magnetic resonance principles produces extremely detailed pictures of the body tissue without the need for x-ray exposure and gives diagnostic information of various organs.
Measured are mobile hydrogen nuclei (protons are the hydrogen atoms of water, the 'H' in H20), the majority of elements in the body. Only a small part of them contribute to the measured signal, caused by their different alignment in the magnetic field. Protons are capable of absorbing energy if exposed to short radio wave pulses (electromagnetic energy) at their resonance frequency. After the absorption of this energy, the nuclei release this energy so that they return to their initial state of equilibrium.
This transmission of energy by the nuclei as they return to their initial state is what is observed as the MRI signal. The subtle differing characteristic of that signal from different tissues combined with complex mathematical formulas analyzed on modern computers is what enables MRI imaging to distinguish between various organs. Any imaging plane, or slice, can be projected, and then stored or printed.
The measured signal intensity depends jointly on the spin density and the relaxation times (T1 time and T2 time), with their relative importance depending on the particular imaging technique and choice of interpulse times. Any motion such as blood flow, respiration, etc. also affects the image brightness.
Magnetic resonance imaging is particularly sensitive in assessing anatomical structures, organs and soft tissues for the detection and diagnosis of a broad range of pathological conditions. MRI pictures can provide contrast between benign and pathological tissues and may be used to stage cancers as well as to evaluate the response to treatment of malignancies. The need for biopsy or exploratory surgery can be eliminated in some cases, and can result in earlier diagnosis of many diseases.
See also MRI History and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI).
 
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
A Short History of the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
   by www.teslasociety.com    
MRI's inside story
Thursday, 4 December 2003   by www.economist.com    
On the Horizon - Next Generation MRI
Wednesday, 23 October 2013   by thefutureofthings.com    
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Metamaterials boost sensitivity of MRI machines
Thursday, 14 January 2016   by www.eurekalert.org    
MRI technique allows study of wrist in motion
Monday, 6 January 2014   by www.healthimaging.com    
New imaging technology promising for several types of cancer
Thursday, 29 August 2013   by medicalxpress.com    
Study Shows MRI Can Be Used for Orthodontic Imaging
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MRI method for measuring MS progression validated
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The 2003 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
2003   by www.nobel.se    
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Pulse SequenceForum -
related threadsMRI Resource Directory:
 - Sequences -
 
A pulse sequence is a preselected set of defined RF and gradient pulses, usually repeated many times during a scan, wherein the time interval between pulses and the amplitude and shape of the gradient waveforms will control NMR signal reception and affect the characteristics of the MR images. Pulse sequences are computer programs that control all hardware aspects of the MRI measurement process.
Usual to describe pulse sequences, is to list the repetition time (TR), the echo time (TE), if using inversion recovery, the inversion time (TI) with all times given in milliseconds, and in case of a gradient echo sequence, the flip angle. For example, 3000/30/1000 would indicate an inversion recovery pulse sequence with TR of 3000 msec., TE of 30 msec., and TI of 1000 msec.
Specific pulse sequence weightings are dependent on the field strength, the manufacturer and the pathology.
See also Interpulse Times.
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
MYELIN-SELECTIVE MRI: PULSE SEQUENCE DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION
   by www.imaging.robarts.ca    
Faster speed, better spatial resolution lead 3T benefits
   by sipi.usc.edu    
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Thursday, 23 April 2009   by www.eurekalert.org    
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Saturation
 
In MR, saturation is a nonequilibrium state with no net magnetization. The same amount of nuclear spins is aligned against and with the magnetic field. Saturation methods like FatSat, SPIR etc., work with a frequency selective saturation pulse for a specific chemical shift applied before the actual sequence starts. This saturation pulse adjusts the magnetization from tissue components to zero. The hydrogen nuclei of fat and water resonate at different frequencies, which makes it possible to excite just the fat with repeatedly applying RF pulses at the Larmor frequency with interpulse times compared to T1. The resulting signal is then destroyed with a gradient pulse (Spoiler Gradient Pulse). Fat is the chemical compound to be saturated at a fat saturation sequence. When the actual sequence follows, (e.g., a spin echo sequence) the unwanted suppressed component will not resonate.
See also Saturation Recovery.
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SequencesForum -
related threadsInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Sequences -
 
A preselected set of RF (and/or gradient) magnetic field pulses and time spacing between these pulses; used in conjunction with magnetic field gradients and MR signal reception to produce MR images.

See also Pulse Sequence , Interpulse Times and the info sheet.
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Further Reading:
  News & More:
What MRI Sequences Produce the Highest Specific Absorption Rate (SAR), and Is There Something We Should Be Doing to Reduce the SAR During Standard Examinations?
Thursday, 16 April 2015   by www.ajronline.org    
MRI techniques improve pulmonary embolism detection
Monday, 19 March 2012   by medicalxpress.com    
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