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Result : Searchterm 'Magnetization Transfer Contrast' found in 1 term [] and 4 definitions [], (+ 1 Boolean[] results
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Magnetization Transfer Contrast
 
(MTC) This MRI method increases the contrast by removing a portion of the total signal in tissue. An off resonance radio frequency (RF) pulse saturates macromolecular protons to make them invisible (caused by their ultra-short T2* relaxation times). The MRI signal from semi-solid tissue like brain parenchyma is reduced, and the signal from a more fluid component like blood is retained.
E.g., saturation of broad spectral lines may produce decreases in intensity of lines not directly saturated, through exchange of magnetization between the corresponding states; more closely coupled states will show a greater resulting intensity change. Magnetization transfer techniques make demyelinated brain or spine lesions (as seen e.g. in multiple sclerosis) better visible on T2 weighted images as well as on gadolinium contrast enhanced T1 weighted images.
Off resonance makes use of a selection gradient during an off resonance MTC pulse. The gradient has a negative offset frequency on the arterial side of the imaging volume (caudally more off resonant and cranially less off resonant). The net effect of this type of pulse is that the arterial blood outside the imaging volume will retain more of its longitudinal magnetization, with more vascular signal when it enters the imaging volume. Off resonance MTC saturates the venous blood, leaving the arterial blood untouched.
On resonance has no effect on the free water pool but will saturate the bound water pool and is the difference in T2 between the pools. Special binomial pulses are transmitted causing the magnetization of the free protons to remain unchanged. The z-magnetization returns to its original value. The spins of the bound pool with a short T2 experience decay, resulting in a destroyed magnetization after the on resonance pulse.
See also Magnetization Transfer.
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    • Bound Pool
    • Off Resonance
    • Net Magnetization Vector
    • Contrast Agents
 
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MRI of the Human Eye Using Magnetization Transfer Contrast Enhancement
   by www.iovs.org    
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Magnetization Transfer
 
(MT) Magnetization Transfer was accidentally discovered by Wolff and Balaban in 1989. Conventional MRI is based on the differences in T1, T2 and the proton density (water content and the mobility of water molecules) in tissue; it relies primarily on free (bulk) water protons. The T2 relaxation times are greater than 10 ms and detectable. The T2 relaxation times of protons associated with macromolecules are less then 1 ms and not detectable in MRI.
Magnetization Transfer Imaging (MTI) is based on the magnetization interaction (through dipolar and/or chemical exchange) between bulk water protons and macromolecular protons. By applying an off resonance radio frequency pulse to the macromolecular protons, the saturation of these protons is then transferred to the bulk water protons. The result is a decrease in signal (the net magnetization of visible protons is reduced), depending on the magnitude of MT between tissue macromolecules and bulk water. With MTI, the presence or absence of macromolecules (e.g. in membranes, brain tissue) can be seen.
The magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) is the difference in signal intensity with or without MT.
See also Magnetization Transfer Contrast.
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
MICRO-STRUCTURAL QUANTITIES - DIFFUSION, MAGNETISATION DECAY, MAGNETISATION TRANSFER AND PERMEABILITY(.pdf)
   by www.dundee.ac.uk    
The Basics of MRI
   by www.cis.rit.edu    
  News & More:
Gold-manganese nanoparticles for targeted diagnostic and imaging
Thursday, 12 November 2015   by www.nanowerk.com    
Magnetization Transfer Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Hepatic Tumors(.pdf)
   by www.nci.edu.eg    
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Net Magnetization Vector
 
Hydrogen nuclei magnetic moments are randomly oriented in the absence of an external magnetic field and are considered to have a net magnetization of zero. Once hydrogen protons are placed in the presence of an external magnetic field, they align themselves in one of two directions, parallel or anti parallel to the net magnetic field, which is commonly referred to as the vector B0. The parallel and anti parallel protons cancel each other out, only the small number of low energy protons left aligned with the magnetic field create the overall net magnetization, this difference is all that counts. The magnetic moments of these protons are added together and are referred to as net magnetization vector (NMV) or the symbol 'M'.
See also Magnetization Transfer Contrast.
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
Mapping of low flip angles in magnetic resonance(.pdf)
Saturday, 1 January 2011   by www.hal.inserm.fr    
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Off Resonance
 
A state occurring when the Larmor frequency of a spin isochromat is different from that of the exciting RF field. See also Magnetization Transfer Contrast.
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
Factors influencing flip angle mapping in MRI: RF pulse shape, slice-select gradients, off-resonance excitation, and B0 inhomogeneities.
Tuesday, 1 August 2006   by www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov    
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On Resonance
 
A state occurring when the Larmor frequency of a spin isochromat is the same as that of the exciting RF field. See also Magnetization Transfer Contrast.
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