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Gradient Echo SequenceForum -
related threadsInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Types of, 
Gradient Echo Sequence Timing Diagram (GRE - sequence) A gradient echo is generated by using a pair of bipolar gradient pulses. In the pulse sequence timing diagram, the basic gradient echo sequence is illustrated. There is no refocusing 180° pulse and the data are sampled during a gradient echo, which is achieved by dephasing the spins with a negatively pulsed gradient before they are rephased by an opposite gradient with opposite polarity to generate the echo.
See also the Pulse Sequence Timing Diagram. There you will find a description of the components.
The excitation pulse is termed the alpha pulse a. It tilts the magnetization by a flip angle a, which is typically between 0° and 90°. With a small flip angle there is a reduction in the value of transverse magnetization that will affect subsequent RF pulses. The flip angle can also be slowly increased during data acquisition (variable flip angle: tilt optimized nonsaturation excitation). The data are not acquired in a steady state, where z-magnetization recovery and destruction by ad-pulses are balanced. However, the z-magnetization is used up by tilting a little more of the remaining z-magnetization into the xy-plane for each acquired imaging line.
Gradient echo imaging is typically accomplished by examining the FID, whereas the read gradient is turned on for localization of the signal in the readout direction. T2* is the characteristic decay time constant associated with the FID. The contrast and signal generated by a gradient echo depend on the size of the longitudinal magnetization and the flip angle. When a = 90° the sequence is identical to the so-called partial saturation or saturation recovery pulse sequence. In standard GRE imaging, this basic pulse sequence is repeated as many times as image lines have to be acquired. Additional gradients or radio frequency pulses are introduced with the aim to spoil to refocus the xy-magnetization at the moment when the spin system is subject to the next a pulse.
As a result of the short repetition time, the z-magnetization cannot fully recover and after a few initial a pulses there is an equilibrium established between z-magnetization recovery and z-magnetization reduction due to the a pulses.
Gradient echoes have a lower SAR, are more sensitive to field inhomogeneities and have a reduced crosstalk, so that a small or no slice gap can be used. In or out of phase imaging depending on the selected TE (and field strength of the magnet) is possible. As the flip angle is decreased, T1 weighting can be maintained by reducing the TR. T2* weighting can be minimized by keeping the TE as short as possible, but pure T2 weighting is not possible. By using a reduced flip angle, some of the magnetization value remains longitudinal (less time needed to achieve full recovery) and for a certain T1 and TR, there exist one flip angle that will give the most signal, known as the "Ernst angle".
Contrast values:
PD weighted: Small flip angle (no T1), long TR (no T1) and short TE (no T2*)
T1 weighted: Large flip angle (70°), short TR (less than 50ms) and short TE
T2* weighted: Small flip angle, some longer TR (100 ms) and long TE (20 ms)

Classification of GRE sequences can be made into four categories:
T1 weighted or incoherent/(RF or gradient) spoiled GRE sequences
T1/T2* weighted or coherent//refocused GRE sequences
T2 weighted contrast enhanced GRE sequences
ultrafast GRE sequences
See also Gradient Recalled Echo Sequence, Spoiled Gradient Echo Sequence, Refocused Gradient Echo Sequence, Ultrafast Gradient Echo Sequence.
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Further Reading:
Enhanced Fast GRadient Echo 3-Dimensional (efgre3D) or THRIVE
Imaging strategies for uncooperative patients
Sunday, 1 January 2017   by    
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MRI evaluation of fatty liver in day to day practice: Quantitative and qualitative methods
Wednesday, 3 September 2014   by    
T1rho-prepared balanced gradient echo for rapid 3D T1rho MRI
Monday, 1 September 2008   by    
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T1 TimeForum -
related threads
The T1 relaxation time (also called spin lattice or longitudinal relaxation time), is a biological parameter that is used in MRIs to distinguish between tissue types. This tissue-specific time constant for protons, is a measure of the time taken to realign with the external magnetic field. The T1 constant will indicate how quickly the spinning nuclei will emit their absorbed RF into the surrounding tissue.
As the high-energy nuclei relax and realign, they emit energy which is recorded to provide information about their environment. The realignment with the magnetic field is termed longitudinal relaxation and the time in milliseconds required for a certain percentage of the tissue nuclei to realign is termed 'Time 1' or T1. Starting from zero magnetization in the z direction, the z magnetization will grow after excitation from zero to a value of about 63% of its final value in a time of T1. This is the basic of T1 weighted images.
The T1 time is a contrast determining tissue parameter. Due to the slow molecular motion of fat nuclei, longitudinal relaxation occurs rather rapidly and longitudinal magnetization is regained quickly. The net magnetic vector realigns with B0 leading to a short T1 time for fat.
Water is not as efficient as fat in T1 recovery due to the high mobility of the water molecules. Water nuclei do not give up their energy to the lattice (surrounding tissue) as quickly as fat, and therefore take longer to regain longitudinal magnetization, resulting in a long T1 time.
See also T1 Weighted Image, T1 Relaxation, T2 Weighted Image, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI.
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Further Reading:
A practical guideline for T1 reconstruction from various flip angles in MRI
Saturday, 1 October 2016   by    
Magnetic resonance imaging - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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New technique could allow for safer, more accurate heart scans
Thursday, 10 December 2015   by    
Rockland Technimed: Tissue Viability Imaging
Saturday, 15 December 2007   by    
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Teslascan®InfoSheet: - Contrast Agents - 
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 - Contrast Agents -
(Mn-DPDP) This agent, mangafodipir trisodium, is a hepatocyte specific MRI contrast agent. Manganese is very toxic, so it has to be chelated and put in the form of a vitamin B6 analog, which is taken up by normal hepatocytes to some extent.
Teslascan® was developed in the early 1980's, went through clinical trials in the early 1990's, and was approved in 1997. One problem with assessing the efficacy of this agent is the fact that the phase III trials finished in the early 1990's, and the techniques used for MR today are very different from the techniques used almost a decade ago.
This contrast agent shortens the T1 relaxation time. On T1 weighted pictures it makes a normal liver look brighter. Since metastases, for example, do not generally take up this agent, the contrast between the enhancing liver and the non-enhancing lesions will increase on T1 weighted pictures. It does not have much effect on T2 weighted images.

Drug Information and Specification
NAME OF COMPOUND Mangafodipir trisodium, Manganese dipyroxyl diphosphate, MN-DPDP
DEVELOPER Amersham plc
CONTRAST EFFECT T1, Predominantly positive enhancement
RELAXIVITY r1=2.3, r2=4.0, B0=1.0 T
PHARMACOKINETIC Hepatobiliary, pancreatic, adrenal
OSMOLALITY 290 mosm/kgH2O
DOSAGE 5 µmol/kg, 0.5 ml/kg
PREPARATION Finished product
INDICATION Liver lesions
PRESENTATION Vials of 100 ml

Distribution Information
USA Teslascan® for sale GE Healthcare
EU Teslascan® for sale GE Healthcare


• View the DATABASE results for 'Teslascan®' (4).Open this link in a new window

Further Reading:
  News & More:
Diagnosis and staging of pancreatic cancer: comparison of mangafodipir trisodium-enhanced MR imaging and contrast-enhanced helical hydro-CT.
Searchterm 'T1 Weighted' was also found in the following services: 
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Abdominal ImagingMRI Resource Directory:
 - Abdominal Imaging -
General MRI of the abdomen can consist of T1 or T2 weighted spin echo, fast spin echo (FSE, TSE) or gradient echo sequences with fat suppression and contrast enhanced MRI techniques. The examined organs include liver, pancreas, spleen, kidneys, adrenals as well as parts of the stomach and intestine (see also gastrointestinal imaging). Respiratory compensation and breath hold imaging is mandatory for a good image quality.
T1 weighted sequences are more sensitive for lesion detection than T2 weighted sequences at 0.5 T, while higher field strengths (greater than 1.0 T), T2 weighted and spoiled gradient echo sequences are used for focal lesion detection. Gradient echo in phase T1 breath hold can be performed as a dynamic series with the ability to visualize the blood distribution. Phases of contrast enhancement include the capillary or arterial dominant phase for demonstrating hypervascular lesions, in liver imaging the portal venous phase demonstrates the maximum difference between the liver and hypovascular lesions, while the equilibrium phase demonstrates interstitial disbursement for edematous and malignant tissues.
Out of phase gradient echo imaging for the abdomen is a lipid-type tissue sensitive sequence and is useful for the visualization of focal hepatic lesions, fatty liver (see also Dixon), hemochromatosis, adrenal lesions and renal masses. The standards for abdominal MRI vary according to clinical sites based on sequence availability and MRI equipment. Specific abdominal imaging coils and liver-specific contrast agents targeted to the healthy liver tissue improve the detection and localization of lesions.
See also Hepatobiliary Contrast Agents, Reticuloendothelial Contrast Agents, and Oral Contrast Agents.

For Ultrasound Imaging (USI) see Abdominal Ultrasound at
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• View the DATABASE results for 'Abdominal Imaging' (11).Open this link in a new window

• View the NEWS results for 'Abdominal Imaging' (3).Open this link in a new window.
Further Reading:
Abdominal MRI at 3.0 T: The Basics Revisited
Wednesday, 20 July 2005   by    
Usefulness of MR Imaging for Diseases of the Small Intestine: Comparison with CT
2000   by    
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RSI-MRI imaging technology can effectively differentiate aggressive prostate cancer
Thursday, 2 June 2016   by    
Computer-aided detection and diagnosis for prostate cancer based on mono and multi-parametric MRI: A review - Abstract
Tuesday, 28 April 2015   by    
MRI for differentiating ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma from high-grade serous adenocarcinoma
Wednesday, 29 April 2015   by    
MRI identifies 'hidden' fat that puts adolescents at risk for disease
Tuesday, 27 February 2007   by    
Nottingham scientists exploit MRI technology to assist in the treatment of IBS
Thursday, 9 January 2014   by    
New MR sequence helps radiologists more accurately evaluate abnormalities of the uterus and ovaries
Thursday, 23 April 2009   by    
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Balanced Fast Field EchoInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Types of, 
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 - Sequences -
(bFFE) A FFE sequence using a balanced gradient waveform. A balanced sequence starts out with a RF pulse of 90° or less and the spins in the steady state. Before the next TR in the slice phase and frequency encoding, gradients are balanced so their net value is zero. Now the spins are prepared to accept the next RF pulse, and their corresponding signal can become part of the new transverse magnetization. Since the balanced gradients maintain the transverse and longitudinal magnetization, the result is, that both T1 and T2 contrast are represented in the image. This pulse sequence produces images with increased signal from fluid, along with retaining T1 weighted tissue contrast. Because this form of sequence is extremely dependent on field homogeneity, it is essential to run a shimming prior the acquisition. A fully balanced (refocused) sequence would yield higher signal, especially for tissues with long T2 relaxation times.
See Steady State Free Precession and Gradient Echo Sequence.

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Further Reading:
  News & More:
T1rho-prepared balanced gradient echo for rapid 3D T1rho MRI
Monday, 1 September 2008   by    
Utility of the FIESTA Pulse Sequence in Body Oncologic Imaging: Review
June 2009   by    
MRI Resources 
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