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Repetition Time
 
(TR) The amount of time that exists between successive pulse sequences applied to the same slice.
It is delineated by initiating the first RF pulse of the sequence then repeating the same RF pulse at a time t. Variations in the value of TR have an important effect on the control of image contrast characteristics. TR is also a major factor in total scan time.
See also Scan Time and Image Contrast Characteristics.
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
Magnetic resonance imaging
   by www.scholarpedia.org    
MRI Resources 
Coils - Hospitals - Education - Calculation - MRI Centers - RIS
 
Saturation Recovery
 
(SR) Particular type of partial saturation pulse sequence in which the preceding pulses leave the spins in a state of saturation, so that recovery at the time of the next pulse has taken place from an initial condition of no magnetization. A rare used MRI pulse sequence that generates a predominantly proton density dependent signal, basically employing a 90° RF excitation pulse, with a very long repetition time. With this technique T1 times can be measured faster than with inversion recovery pulse sequences.
This saturation recovery sequence consists of multiple 90° radio frequency (RF) pulses with a short repetition time. A spoiler gradient pulse dephases the longitudinal magnetization that remains after the first 90° radio frequency pulse. A repetition time interval after the application of this spoiling gradient turns an additional 90° pulse the new developed longitudinal magnetization into the transverse plane, followed by recording a gradient echo.
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
Contrast mechanisms in magnetic resonance imaging
2004   by www.iop.org    
MRI Resources 
Cardiovascular Imaging - Directories - Most Wanted - MRI Physics - Musculoskeletal and Joint MRI - Corporations
 
Cardiac Gating
 
This method synchronize the heartbeat with the beginning of the TR, whereat the r wave is used as the trigger. Cardiac gating times the acquisition of MR data to physiological motion in order to minimize motion artifacts. ECG gating techniques are useful whenever data acquisition is too slow to occur during a short fraction of the cardiac cycle.
Image blurring due to cardiac-induced motion occurs for imaging times of above approximately 50 ms in systole, while for imaging during diastole the critical time is of the order of 200-300 ms. The acquisition of an entire image in this time is only possible with using ultrafast MR imaging techniques. If a series of images using cardiac gating or real-time echo planar imaging EPI are acquired over the entire cardiac cycle, pixel-wise velocity and vascular flow can be obtained.
In simple cardiac gating, a single image line is acquired in each cardiac cycle. Lines for multiple images can then be acquired successively in consecutive gate intervals. By using the standard multiple slice imaging and a spin echo pulse sequence, a number of slices at different anatomical levels is obtained. The repetition time (TR) during a ECG-gated acquisition equals the RR interval, and the RR interval defines the minimum possible repetition time (TR). If longer TRs are required, multiple integers of the RR interval can be selected. When using a gradient echo pulse sequence, multiple phases of a single anatomical level or multiple slices at different anatomical levels can be acquired over the cardiac cycle.
Also called cardiac triggering.

 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Cardiac Infarct Short Axis Cine Overview  Open this link in a new window
    

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 Infarct 4 Chamber Cine  Open this link in a new window
    

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
Cardiac MRI - Technical Aspects Primer
Wednesday, 7 August 2002
Electrocardiogram in an MRI Environment: Clinical Needs, Practical Considerations, Safety Implications, Technical Solutions and Future Directions
Wednesday, 25 January 2012   by cdn.intechopen.com    
Motion-compensation of Cardiac Perfusion MRI using a Statistical Texture Ensemble(.pdf)
June 2003   by www.imm.dtu.dk    
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Coherent Gradient EchoInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
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Coherent gradient echo sequences can measure the free induction decay (FID), generated just after each excitation pulse or the echo formed prior to the next pulse. Coherent gradient echo sequences are very sensitive to magnetic field inhomogeneity. An alternative to spoiling is to incorporate residual transverse magnetization directly into the longitudinal steady state. These GRE sequences use a refocusing gradient in the phase encoding direction during the end module to maximize remaining transverse (xy) magnetization at the time when the next excitation is due, while the other two gradients are, in any case, balanced.
When the next excitation pulse is sent into the system with an opposed phase, it tilts the magnetization in the -a direction. As a result the z-magnetization is again partly tilted into the xy-plane, while the remaining xy-magnetization is tilted partly into the z-direction.
A fully refocused sequence with a properly selected and uniform f would yield higher signal, especially for tissues with long T2 relaxation times (high water content) so it is used in angiographic, myelographic or arthrographic examinations and is used for T2* weighting. The repetition time for this sequence has to be short. With short TR, coherent GE is also useable for breath hold and 3D technique. If the repetition time is about 200 msec there's no difference between spoiled or unspoiled GE. T1 weighting is better with spoiled techniques.
The common types include GRASS, FISP, FAST, and FFE.
The T2* component decreases with long TR and short TE. The T1 time is controlled by flip angle. The common TR is less than 50 ms and the common TE less than 15 ms
Other types have stronger T2 dependence but lower SNR. They include SSFP, CE-FAST, PSIF, and CE-FFE-T2.
Examples of fully refocused FID sequences are TrueFISP, bFFE and bTFE.

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MRI Resources 
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Scan TimeForum -
related threads
 
(SCT) The total scan time is the time required to collect all data needed to generate the programmed images. The scan time is related to the used pulse sequence and dependent on the assemble of parameters like e.g., repetition time (TR), Matrix, number of signal averages (NSA), TSE- or EPI factor and flip angle.
For example, the total scan time for a standard spin echo or gradient echo sequence is number of repetitions x the scan time per repetition (means the product of repetition time (TR), number of phase encoding steps, and NSA).
See also Number of Excitations, Turbo Spin Echo Turbo Factor, Echo Planar Imaging Factor, Flip Angle and Image Acquisition Time.
See also acronyms for 'scan time parameters' from different manufacturers.
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
Musculoskeletal MRI at 3.0 T: Relaxation Times and Image Contrast
Sunday, 1 August 2004   by www.ajronline.org    
  News & More:
Clinical examination or whole-body magnetic resonance imaging: the Holy Grail of spondyloarthritis imaging
Tuesday, 28 February 2012   by 7thspace.com    
Real-time MRI: recent advances using radial FLASH
Wednesday, 4 April 2012   by www.futuremedicine.com    
For MRI, time is of the essence A new generation of contrast agents could make for faster and more accurate imaging
Tuesday, 28 June 2011   by scienceline.org    
Clinical evaluation of a speed optimized T2 weighted fast spin echo sequence at 3.0 T using variable flip angle refocusing, half-Fourier acquisition and parallel imaging
Wednesday, 25 October 2006
MRI Resources 
MRI Centers - Coils - Diffusion Weighted Imaging - MRI Physics - Services and Supplies - Nerve Stimulator
 
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