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|Result : Searchterm 'Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreaticography' found in 1 term  and 2 definitions |
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|Rectal staging is necessary for the preoperative assessment of intra- and extramural tumor infiltration or the decision for adjuvant radio-chemotherapy.
One indication of MRI with luminal contrast enhancement is small bowel enteroclysis after duodenal intubation for visualization of inflammatory bowel wall thickening and other complications. |
"Double contrast" enhancement of the bowel lumen is the administration of plain water or water with methylcellulose along with heavily T2 weighted sequences or contrast enhanced T1 weighted sequences.
Several oral contrast agents have been used for small bowel MRI: Mannitol, metamucil, locust bean gum, and PEG. All provide sufficient bowel distension and homogeneity, but suffer from side effects such as diarrhea. The volume of PEG or mannitol administered must be not too large in order to achieve the best compromise between distension and acceptance by the patient.
MR colonography with positive bowel lumen enhancement
requires higher concentrations of paramagnetic agents compared to the
available dedicated enteral contrast agents, IV compounds are used to dope water enemas for this purpose.
Some investigators advocate negative bowel enhancement
with Contrast Agents to suppress high signal bowel content in MRCP ( Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography ).
The use of a mixture of metamucil and 20 ml of gadolinium chelate provides good homogeneity and good tolerance without diarrhea.
• View the DATABASE results for 'Gastrointestinal Imaging' (6).
• View the NEWS results for 'Gastrointestinal Imaging' (1).
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|(SENSE™) A MRI technique for relevant scan time reduction. The spatial information related to the coils of a receiver array are utilized for reducing conventional Fourier encoding. In principle, SENSE can be applied to any imaging sequence and k-space trajectories. However, it is particularly feasible for Cartesian sampling schemes. In 2D Fourier imaging with common Cartesian sampling of k-space sensitivity encoding by means of a receiver array enables to reduce the number of Fourier encoding steps. |
SENSE reconstruction without artifacts relies on accurate knowledge of the individual coil sensitivities. For sensitivity assessment, low-resolution, fully Fourier-encoded reference images are required, obtained with each array element and with a body coil.
The major negative point of parallel imaging techniques is that they diminish SNR in proportion to the numbers of reduction factors.
R is the factor by which the number of k-space samples is reduced. In standard Fourier imaging reducing the sampling density results in the reduction of the FOV, causing aliasing. In fact, SENSE reconstruction in the Cartesian case is efficiently performed by first creating one such aliased image for each array element using discrete Fourier transformation (DFT).
The next step then is to create a full-FOV image from the set of intermediate images. To achieve this one must undo the signal superposition underlying the fold-over effect. That is, for each pixel in the reduced FOV the signal contributions from a number of positions in the full FOV need to be separated. These positions form a Cartesian grid corresponding to the size of the reduced FOV.
The advantages are especially true for contrast-enhanced MR imaging such as
dynamic liver MRI (liver imaging) ,
3 dimensional magnetic resonance angiography (3D MRA), and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography (MRCP).
The excellent scan speed of SENSE allows for acquisition of two separate sets of hepatic MR images within the time regarded as the hepatic arterial-phase (double arterial-phase technique) as well as that of multidetector CT.
SENSE can also increase the time efficiency of spatial signal encoding in 3D MRA. With SENSE, even ultrafast (sub second) 4D MRA can be realized.
For MRCP acquisition, high-resolution 3D MRCP images can be constantly provided by SENSE. This is because SENSE resolves the presence of the severe motion artifacts due to longer acquisition time. Longer acquisition time, which results in diminishing image quality, is the greatest problem for 3D MRCP imaging.
In addition, SENSE reduces the train of gradient echoes in combination with a faster k-space traversal per unit time, thereby dramatically improving the image quality of single shot echo planar imaging (i.e. T2 weighted, diffusion weighted imaging).
• View the DATABASE results for 'Sensitivity Encoding' (12).
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