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Lung ImagingMRI Resource Directory:
 - Lung Imaging -
Lung imaging is furthermore a challenge in MRI because of the predominance of air within the lungs and associated susceptibility issues as well as low signal to noise of the inflated lung parenchyma. Cardiac and respiratory triggered or breath hold sequences allow diagnostic imaging, however a comparable image quality with computed tomography is still difficult to achieve.
Assumptions for lung MRI:
Low signal to noise ratio of the inherently low lung proton density.
Cardiac and respiratory motion artifacts.
Magnetic susceptibility effects of large magnetic field gradients.
Very short transverse relaxation times and significant diffusion yielding short T2 (30-70 msec), short T2* (1-3 msec), and additional long T1 relaxation times (1300-1500 msec).
The extreme short T2 values are responsible for a fast signal decay during a single shot readout, resulting in blurring.
The current trends in MRI are the use of new imaging technologies and increasingly powerful magnetic fields. Among these technologies are parallel imaging techniques as well as ventilation agents like hyperpolarized helium for the use as an inert inhalational contrast agent to study lung ventilation properties. With hyperpolarized gases clear images of the lungs can be obtained without using a large magnetic field (see also back projection imaging). Single shot sequences (e.g. TSE or Half Fourier Acquisition Single Shot Turbo Spin Echo HASTE) used in lung MR imaging benefits from parallel imaging techniques due to reduced relaxation time effects during the echo train and therefore reduced image blurring as well as reduced motion artifacts.
In the future, more effective contrast agents may provide an alternative solution to the need for high field MRI. Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI perfusion has demonstrated a potential in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism or to characterize lung cancer and mediastinal tumors. 3D contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography of the thoracic vessel.

See also the related poll result: 'MRI will have replaced 50% of x-ray exams by'
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Anatomic Imaging of the Lungs  Open this link in a new window

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 Normal Lung Gd Perfusion MRI  Open this link in a new window

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman

 MRI Thorax Basal Plane  Open this link in a new window
Radiology-tip.comLung Scintigraphy
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    • Cardiovascular Imaging
    • Parallel Imaging Technique
    • Ventilation Agents
    • Cardiac Gating
    • Abdominal Imaging
Further Reading:
A safer approach for diagnostic medical imaging
Monday, 29 September 2014   by    
Detection of Pulmonary tuberculosis: comparing MR imaging with HRCT
Friday, 16 September 2011   by    
Parallel Lung Imaging(.pdf)
Low-Field MRI of Laser Polarized Noble Gas
  News & More:
New MRI Approach Reveals Bronchiectasis' Key Features Within the Lung
Thursday, 13 November 2014   by    
Researchers Review Importance of Non-Invasive Imaging in Diagnosis and Management of PAH
Wednesday, 11 March 2015   by    
Functional imaging with diffusion-weighted MRI for lung biopsy planning: initial experience
Thursday, 10 July 2014   by    
MRI techniques improve pulmonary embolism detection
Monday, 19 March 2012   by    
Searchterm 'Lung Imaging' was also found in the following service: 
Radiology  (2) Open this link in a new window
Ventilation AgentsInfoSheet: - Contrast Agents - 
Intro, Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Contrast Agents -
Inert hyperpolarized gases are under development for imaging air spaces, including those in the lungs. Because they mostly contain air and water, lungs are difficult organs to image.
These ventilation agents (gases) have potential in lung imaging and are currently used in studies of the pulmonary ventilation:
perfluorinated gases
aerosolized gadolinium-DTPA
hyperpolarized gases (xenon-129, helium-3)
molecular oxygen
Specific isotopes of inert gases can be hyperpolarized. Hyperpolarized is a state in which almost all of the atoms nuclei are spinning in the same direction. Once the nuclei in the isotope 3He have been hyperpolarized using a laser, they remain in this state for several days. The inert, hyperpolarized gas can then be used in a lung imaging study, where the high concentration of polarized nuclei provides a sharp contrast in MRI. The technique is already being developed with a view to commercialization by Magnetic Imaging Technologies in Durham, North Carolina. According to the company, existing MRI equipment can be used with a few minor modifications, along with a gas polarizer. The technique could provide early detection and monitoring of pulmonary disease.
Hyperpolarized 129Xe can also be used as a magnetic resonance tracer because of its MR-enhanced sensitivity combined with its high solubility. This isotope differs from 3He in that it can dissolve in the blood. Strong enhancement of the nuclear spin polarization of xenon in the gas phase can be achieved by optical pumping of rubidium and subsequent spin-exchange with the xenon nuclei. This technique can increase the magnetic resonance signal of xenon by five orders of magnitude, thus allowing NMR detection of xenon in very low concentration. MR spectroscopy and imaging of optically polarized xenon shows considerable potential for medical applications (see also back projection imaging).
Nycomed Amersham anticipated the market for inert gases in pulmonary imaging. The company obtained an exclusive license for the use of helium (He) and xenon (Xe) as MRI contrast agents. Currently, the US FDA has not yet approved the commercial distribution of inert gas imaging equipment, because the technique is still undergoing trials.

• View the DATABASE results for 'Ventilation Agents' (3).Open this link in a new window

Further Reading:
Low-Field MRI of Laser Polarized Noble Gas
  News & More:
Pumpkin-shaped molecule enables 100-fold improved MRI contrast: new agent for detecting pathological cells
Tuesday, 13 October 2015   by    
MRI Mapping of Cerebrovascular Reactivity via Gas Inhalation Challenges
Wednesday, 17 December 2014   by    
Using MRI to study gas reactions
Thursday, 31 January 2008   by    
New Technique Reveals Insights Into Lung Disease
Thursday, 13 December 2007   by    
MRI Resources 
Universities - Anatomy - Quality Advice - Stimulator pool - NMR - Coils
Back Projection Imaging
This imaging technique is probably the earliest, but rarely used today. Most of today’s imaging techniques are based on the Fourier transform, and fill the Cartesian grid of points in k-space line by line by a sequence of applied gradients. Back projection imaging performs a radial filling of the k-space by a one dimensional field gradient, applied at different angles. Back projection imaging is still in use in laser polarized noble gas imaging (see ventilation agents and lung imaging).


• View the DATABASE results for 'Back Projection Imaging' (3).Open this link in a new window

Further Reading:
Primer on Magentic Resonance Imaging Tomography
The Basics of MRI
Searchterm 'Lung Imaging' was also found in the following services: 
News  (16)  Resources  (5)  
Computer Aided Detection
(CAD) 'Computer aided detection' or 'computer assisted diagnosis' systems are tools to improve the efficiency and workflow in medical imaging procedures. The aim of CAD is to increase the diagnostic accuracy of screening procedures by using a computer system to locate abnormalities, improve image management, correct patient movement and assist the radiologists in the interpretation and analysis of data-intensive studies. Typical applications include the tumor detection in mammography, breast MRI, colonography, and lung imaging. Newer applications like prostate MRI are under investigation.
See also MR Guided Interventions and Breast MRI.

• View the DATABASE results for 'Computer Aided Detection' (3).Open this link in a new window

• View the NEWS results for 'Computer Aided Detection' (7).Open this link in a new window.
Further Reading:
Study: MRI scans of knees can be used for biometric identification
Wednesday, 23 January 2013   by    
  News & More:
Computer-aided detection and diagnosis for prostate cancer based on mono and multi-parametric MRI: A review - Abstract
Tuesday, 28 April 2015   by    
MRI method for measuring MS progression validated
Thursday, 19 December 2013   by    
Searchterm 'Lung Imaging' was also found in the following service: 
Radiology  (2) Open this link in a new window
Contrast Enhanced MRIInfoSheet: - Contrast Agents - 
Intro, Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Contrast Enhanced MRI -
Contrast enhanced MRI is a commonly used procedure in magnetic resonance imaging. The need to more accurately characterize different types of lesions and to detect all malignant lesions is the main reason for the use of intravenous contrast agents.
Some methods are available to improve the contrast of different tissues. The focus of dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) is on contrast kinetics with demands for spatial resolution dependent on the application. DCE-MR imaging is used for diagnosis of cancer (see also liver imaging, abdominal imaging, breast MRI, dynamic scanning) as well as for diagnosis of cardiac infarction (see perfusion imaging, cardiac MRI). Quantitative DCE-MRI requires special data acquisition techniques and analysis software.
Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) allows the visualization of vessels and the temporal resolution provides a separation of arteries and veins. These methods share the need for acquisition methods with high temporal and spatial resolution.
Double contrast administration (combined contrast enhanced (CCE) MRI) uses two contrast agents with complementary mechanisms e.g., superparamagnetic iron oxide to darken the background liver and gadolinium to brighten the vessels. A variety of different categories of contrast agents are currently available for clinical use.
Reasons for the use of contrast agents in MRI scans are:
Relaxation characteristics of normal and pathologic tissues are not always different enough to produce obvious differences in signal intensity.
Pathology that is sometimes occult on unenhanced images becomes obvious in the presence of contrast.
Enhancement significantly increases MRI sensitivity.
In addition to improving delineation between normal and abnormal tissues, the pattern of contrast enhancement can improve diagnostic specificity by facilitating characterization of the lesion(s) in question.
Contrast can yield physiologic and functional information in addition to lesion delineation.
Imaging of arteries and veins with contrast enhanced angiography (CE MRA).

Common Indications:
Brain MRI : Preoperative/pretreatment evaluation and postoperative evaluation of brain tumor therapy, CNS infections, noninfectious inflammatory disease and meningeal disease.
Spine MRI : Infection/inflammatory disease, primary tumors, drop metastases, initial evaluation of syrinx, postoperative evaluation of the lumbar spine: disk vs. scar.
Breast MRI : Detection of breast cancer in case of dense breasts, implants, malignant lymph nodes, or scarring after treatment for breast cancer, diagnosis of a suspicious breast lesion in order to avoid biopsy.

For Ultrasound Imaging (USI) see Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound at See also Blood Pool Agents, Myocardial Late Enhancement, Cardiovascular Imaging, Contrast Enhanced MR Venography, Contrast Resolution, Dynamic Scanning, Lung Imaging, Hepatobiliary Contrast Agents, Contrast Medium and MRI Guided Biopsy.

Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Delayed Myocardial Contrast Enhancement from Infarct  Open this link in a new window

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 Left Circumflex Ischemia First-pass Contrast Enhancement  Open this link in a new window

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman

 Normal Lung Gd Perfusion MRI  Open this link in a new window
 MRI of the Brain Stem with Temoral Bone and Auditory System  Open this link in a new window
SlidersSliders Overview

 Breast MRI Images T1 Pre - Post Contrast  Open this link in a new window
Radiology-tip.comContrast Enhanced Computed Tomography
Radiology-tip.comContrast Enhanced Ultrasound,  Contrast Enhanced Doppler Imaging

• View the DATABASE results for 'Contrast Enhanced MRI' (14).Open this link in a new window

• View the NEWS results for 'Contrast Enhanced MRI' (8).Open this link in a new window.
Further Reading:
Optimal k-Space Sampling for Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI with an Application to MR Renography
Thursday, 5 November 2009   by    
Background MRI Enhancement Up in Premenopausal Breast Cancer
Friday, 7 June 2013   by    
Bringing innovative technologies together
Monday, 18 November 2013   by    
  News & More:
MRI Contrast Agent Analysis from Bruker
Sunday, 11 August 2013   by    
CMC Contrast Granted Orphan Drug Designation by the FDA for its Liver Specific MRI Contrast Media CMC-001
Wednesday, 27 November 2013   by    
All-organic MRI Contrast Agent Tested In Mice
Monday, 24 September 2012   by    
A groundbreaking new graphene-based MRI contrast agent
Friday, 8 June 2012   by    
Novel Imaging Technique Improves Prostate Cancer Detection
Tuesday, 6 January 2015   by    
MRI Resources 
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