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Fast Acquisition with Multiphase EFGRE3DInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
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(FAME) The FAME MRI technique uses a 3dimensional fast SPGR pulse sequence to acquire high resolution images. With its short scan time, FAME is useful for dynamic liver imaging with multiple phases.
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Liver Acquisition with Volume AcquisitionInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
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(LAVA) The MRI technique LAVA is based on a 3 dimensional spoiled gradient echo pulse sequence. The optimized inversion pulse and a new fat suppression technique (called segmented special) provides enhanced image contrast and uniform fat suppression. Array spatial sensitivity encoding technique (ASSET) with partial data filling and shorter TR/TE enables to use short breath holds for dynamic liver imaging with multiple phases.
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MR Field Notes
   by www.gehealthcare.com    
Scanning the Abdomen
   by www.mrprotocols.com    
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Teslascan®InfoSheet: - Contrast Agents - 
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 - Contrast Agents -
 
(Mn-DPDP) This agent, mangafodipir trisodium, is a hepatocyte specific MRI contrast agent. Manganese is very toxic, so it has to be chelated and put in the form of a vitamin B6 analog, which is taken up by normal hepatocytes to some extent.
Teslascan® was developed in the early 1980's, went through clinical trials in the early 1990's, and was approved in 1997. One problem with assessing the efficacy of this agent is the fact that the phase III trials finished in the early 1990's, and the techniques used for MR today are very different from the techniques used almost a decade ago.
This contrast agent shortens the T1 relaxation time. On T1 weighted pictures it makes a normal liver look brighter. Since metastases, for example, do not generally take up this agent, the contrast between the enhancing liver and the non-enhancing lesions will increase on T1 weighted pictures. It does not have much effect on T2 weighted images.

Drug Information and Specification
NAME OF COMPOUND Mangafodipir trisodium, Manganese dipyroxyl diphosphate, MN-DPDP
DEVELOPER Amersham plc
CENTRAL MOIETY Mn2+
CONTRAST EFFECT T1, Predominantly positive enhancement
RELAXIVITY r1=2.3, r2=4.0, B0=1.0 T
PHARMACOKINETIC Hepatobiliary, pancreatic, adrenal
OSMOLALITY 290 mosm/kgH2O
CONCENTRATION 0.01 mmol/L
DOSAGE 5 µmol/kg, 0.5 ml/kg
PREPARATION Finished product
INDICATION Liver lesions
DEVELOPMENT STAGE Approved
DISTRIBUTOR See below
PRESENTATION Vials of 100 ml
DO NOT RELY ON THE INFORMATION PROVIDED HERE, THEY ARE NOT A SUBSTITUTE FOR THE ACCOMPANYING PACKAGE INSERT!

Distribution Information
TERRITORY TRADE NAME DEVELOPMENT
STAGE
DISTRIBUTOR
USA Teslascan® for sale GE Healthcare
EU Teslascan® for sale GE Healthcare

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EMEA - Teslascan - SCIENTIFIC DISCUSSION(.pdf)
   by www.emea.europa.eu    
  News & More:
Diagnosis and staging of pancreatic cancer: comparison of mangafodipir trisodium-enhanced MR imaging and contrast-enhanced helical hydro-CT.
2002
MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING OF FOCAL LIVER LESIONS(.pdf)
2002
Searchterm '3 phase liver mri' was also found in the following service: 
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Sensitivity EncodingInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
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(SENSE™) A MRI technique for relevant scan time reduction. The spatial information related to the coils of a receiver array are utilized for reducing conventional Fourier encoding. In principle, SENSE can be applied to any imaging sequence and k-space trajectories. However, it is particularly feasible for Cartesian sampling schemes. In 2D Fourier imaging with common Cartesian sampling of k-space sensitivity encoding by means of a receiver array enables to reduce the number of Fourier encoding steps.
SENSE reconstruction without artifacts relies on accurate knowledge of the individual coil sensitivities. For sensitivity assessment, low-resolution, fully Fourier-encoded reference images are required, obtained with each array element and with a body coil.
The major negative point of parallel imaging techniques is that they diminish SNR in proportion to the numbers of reduction factors. R is the factor by which the number of k-space samples is reduced. In standard Fourier imaging reducing the sampling density results in the reduction of the FOV, causing aliasing. In fact, SENSE reconstruction in the Cartesian case is efficiently performed by first creating one such aliased image for each array element using discrete Fourier transformation (DFT).
The next step then is to create a full-FOV image from the set of intermediate images. To achieve this one must undo the signal superposition underlying the fold-over effect. That is, for each pixel in the reduced FOV the signal contributions from a number of positions in the full FOV need to be separated. These positions form a Cartesian grid corresponding to the size of the reduced FOV.
The advantages are especially true for contrast-enhanced MR imaging such as dynamic liver MRI (liver imaging) , 3 dimensional magnetic resonance angiography (3D MRA), and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography (MRCP).
The excellent scan speed of SENSE allows for acquisition of two separate sets of hepatic MR images within the time regarded as the hepatic arterial-phase (double arterial-phase technique) as well as that of multidetector CT.
SENSE can also increase the time efficiency of spatial signal encoding in 3D MRA. With SENSE, even ultrafast (sub second) 4D MRA can be realized.
For MRCP acquisition, high-resolution 3D MRCP images can be constantly provided by SENSE. This is because SENSE resolves the presence of the severe motion artifacts due to longer acquisition time. Longer acquisition time, which results in diminishing image quality, is the greatest problem for 3D MRCP imaging.
In addition, SENSE reduces the train of gradient echoes in combination with a faster k-space traversal per unit time, thereby dramatically improving the image quality of single shot echo planar imaging (i.e. T2 weighted, diffusion weighted imaging).
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Image Characteristics and Quality
   by www.sprawls.org    
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Eovist®InfoSheet: - Contrast Agents - 
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Characteristics, 
Types of, 
etc.
 
Eovist® (other brand name Primovist™) is a organ specific MRI contrast agent for the imaging, detection and characterization of liver conditions, including liver tumors, cysts, as well as other malignant and benign lesions. It is a water-soluble ethoxybenzyl derivative of Gd-DTPA. This compound is taken up by the hepatocytes (approximately 30% of the dose goes to the hepatocytes) and is equally excreted renal and biliary in humans. Excretion of Gd-EOB-DTPA in the bile may also permit visualization of both the gall bladder and the bile ducts.
Eovist® brightens the signal of T1 weighted MR images immediately after contrast administration. Dynamic and accumulation phase imaging can also be performed after bolus injection of Eovist®. The hepatocytes uptake will increase the signal intensity of normal liver parenchyma at 10 to 20 minutes after injection. This results in improved lesion-to-liver contrast because malignant tumors (metastases, the majority of hepatocellular carcinomas) do not contain either hepatocytes or their functioning is hampered.
WARNING: Gadolinium-based contrast agents increase the risk for nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) in patients with acute or chronic severe renal insufficiency (glomerular filtration rate less than 30 mL/min/1.73m2), or acute renal insufficiency of any severity due to the hepato-renal syndrome or in the perioperative liver transplantation period.
See also Drug Development and Approval Process USA, Contrast Medium, Hepatobiliary Contrast Agents, Tumor Specific Agents and Molecular Imaging.


Drug Information and Specification
NAME OF COMPOUND Gadoxetic acid disodium, Gd-EOB-DTPA
DEVELOPER Bayer Schering Pharma AG
CENTRAL MOIETY Gd2+
CONTRAST EFFECT T1, Predominantly positive enhancement
RELAXIVITY Short T1-relaxation time
PHARMACOKINETIC 50% hepatobiliary, 50% renal excretion
OSMOLALITY 884 mosm/kgH2O
CONCENTRATION 0.25 mol/L
DOSAGE 12,5 - 25 µmol/kg
PREPARATION Finished product
INDICATION Liver lesions
DEVELOPMENT STAGE for sale
DISTRIBUTOR See below
PRESENTATION
DO NOT RELY ON THE INFORMATION PROVIDED HERE, THEY ARE NOT A SUBSTITUTE FOR THE ACCOMPANYING PACKAGE INSERT!

Distribution Information
TERRITORY TRADE NAME DEVELOPMENT
STAGE
DISTRIBUTOR
USA, Canada Eovist® for sale Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals
EU Primovist™ for sale Bayer Schering Pharma AG

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2008   by berlex.bayerhealthcare.com    
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