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(MRS / MRSI - Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging) A method using the NMR phenomenon to identify the chemical state of various elements without destroying the sample. MRS therefore provides information about the chemical composition of the tissues and the changes in chemical composition, which may occur with disease processes.
Although MRS is primarily employed as a research tool and has yet to achieve widespread acceptance in routine clinical practice, there is a growing realization that a noninvasive technique, which monitors disease biochemistry can provide important new information for the clinician.
The underlying principle of MRS is that atomic nuclei are surrounded by a cloud of electrons, which very slightly shield the nucleus from any external magnetic field. As the structure of the electron cloud is specific to an individual molecule or compound, then the magnitude of this screening effect is also a characteristic of the chemical environment of individual nuclei.
In view of the fact that the resonant frequency is proportional to the magnetic field that it experiences, it follows that the resonant frequency will be determined not only by the external applied field, but also by the small field shift generated by the electron cloud. This shift in frequency is called the chemical shift (see also Chemical Shift). It should be noted that chemical shift is a very small effect, usually expressed in ppm of the main frequency. In order to resolve the different chemical species, it is therefore necessary to achieve very high levels of homogeneity of the main magnetic field B0. Spectra from humans usually require shimming the magnet to approximately one part in 100. High resolution spectra of liquid samples demand a homogeneity of about one part in 1000.
In addition to the effects of factors such as relaxation times that can affect the NMR signal, as seen in magnetic resonance imaging, effects such as J-modulation or the transfer of magnetization after selective excitation of particular spectral lines can affect the relative strengths of spectral lines.
In the context of human MRS, two nuclei are of particular interest - H-1 and P-31. (PMRS - Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy) PMRS is mainly employed in studies of the brain where prominent peaks arise from NAA, choline containing compounds, creatine and creatine phosphate, myo-inositol and, if present, lactate; phosphorus 31 MR spectroscopy detects compounds involved in energy metabolism (creatine phosphate, adenosine triphosphate and inorganic phosphate) and certain compounds related to membrane synthesis and degradation. The frequencies of certain lines may also be affected by factors such as the local pH. It is also possible to determine intracellular pH because the inorganic phosphate peak position is pH sensitive.
If the field is uniform over the volume of the sample, "similar" nuclei will contribute a particular frequency component to the detected response signal irrespective of their individual positions in the sample. Since nuclei of different elements resonate at different frequencies, each element in the sample contributes a different frequency component. A chemical analysis can then be conducted by analyzing the MR response signal into its frequency components.
See also Spectroscopy.
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Chemical Shift ArtifactInfoSheet: - Artifacts - 
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Quick Overview
Please note that there are different common names for this artifact.

Artifact Information
NAME Chemical shift, black boundary, spatial misregistration, relief
DESCRIPTION Black or bright band
REASON Chemical shift, opposed phase image
HELP Fat suppression, smaller water fat shift (high bandwidth), in phase image, SE sequences

During frequency encoding, fat protons precess slower than water protons in the same slice because of their magnetic shielding. Through the difference in resonance frequency between water and fat, protons at the same location are misregistrated (dislocated) by the Fourier transformation, when converting MRI signals from frequency to spatial domain. This chemical shift misregistration cause accentuation of any fat-water interfaces along the frequency axis and may be mistaken for pathology. Where fat and water are in the same location, this artifact can be seen as a bright or dark band at the edge of the anatomy.
Protons in fat and water molecules are separated by a chemical shift of about 3.5 ppm. The actual shift in Hertz (Hz) depends on the magnetic field strength of the magnet being used. Higher field strength increases the misregistration, while in contrast a higher gradient strength has a positive effect. For a 0.3 T system operating at 12.8 MHz the shift will be 44.8 Hz compared with a 223.6 Hz shift for a 1.5 T system operating at 63.9 MHz.

Image Guidance
For artifact reduction helps a smaller water fat shift (higher bandwidth), a higher matrix, an in phase TE or a spin echo technique. Since the misregistration offset is present in the read out axis the patient may be rescanned with this axis parallel to the fat-water interface. Steeper gradient may be employed to reduce the chemical shift offset in mm. Another strategy is to employ specialized pulse sequences such as fat saturation or inversion recovery imaging. Fat suppression techniques eliminate chemical shift artifacts caused by the lack of fat signal.
See also Black Boundary Artifact and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.


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MRI Artifact Gallery
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(CSI) Chemical shift imaging is an extension of MR spectroscopy, allowing metabolite information to be measured in an extended region and to add the chemical analysis of body tissues to the potential clinical utility of Magnetic Resonance. The spatial location is phase encoded and a spectrum is recorded at each phase encoding step to allow the spectra acquisition in a number of volumes covering the whole sample. CSI provides mapping of chemical shifts, analog to individual spectral lines or groups of lines.
Spatial resolution can be in one, two or three dimensions, but with long acquisition times od full 3D CSI. Commonly a slice-selected 2D acquisition is used. The chemical composition of each voxel is represented by spectra, or as an image in which the signal intensity depends on the concentration of an individual metabolite. Alternatively frequency-selective pulses excite only a single spectral component.
There are several methods of performing chemical shift imaging, e.g. the inversion recovery method, chemical shift selective imaging sequence, chemical shift insensitive slice selective RF pulse, the saturation method, spatial and chemical shift encoded excitation and quantitative chemical shift imaging.
See also Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.


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1H MR Spectroscopy and Chemical Shift Imaging of the In Vivo Brain at 7 Tesla
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An element consists of atoms having the same structure and the same chemically reaction.
See also Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Isomer, Isotope, Helium, and Gadolinium.
Mathematically, an element or member of a set is any one of the separate objects that make up that set. Elements in arrays (parallel arrangement of many identical items) are used in MRI coils.
See also Array Coil, Array Processor, and Array Spatial Sensitivity Encoding Technique.

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Medical Imaging
The definition of imaging is the visual representation of an object. Medical imaging began after the discovery of x-rays by Konrad Roentgen 1896. The first fifty years of radiological imaging, pictures have been created by focusing x-rays on the examined body part and direct depiction onto a single piece of film inside a special cassette. The next development involved the use of fluorescent screens and special glasses to see x-ray images in real time.
A major development was the application of contrast agents for a better image contrast and organ visualization. In the 1950s, first nuclear medicine studies showed the up-take of very low-level radioactive chemicals in organs, using special gamma cameras. This medical imaging technology allows information of biologic processes in vivo. Today, PET and SPECT play an important role in both clinical research and diagnosis of biochemical and physiologic processes. In 1955, the first x-ray image intensifier allowed the pick up and display of x-ray movies.
In the 1960s, the principals of sonar were applied to diagnostic imaging. Ultrasonic waves generated by a quartz crystal are reflected at the interfaces between different tissues, received by the ultrasound machine, and turned into pictures with the use of computers and reconstruction software. Ultrasound imaging is an important diagnostic tool, and there are great opportunities for its further development. Looking into the future, the grand challenges include targeted contrast agents, real-time 3D ultrasound imaging, and molecular imaging.
Digital imaging techniques were implemented in the 1970s into conventional fluoroscopic image intensifier and by Godfrey Hounsfield with the first computed tomography. Digital images are electronic snapshots sampled and mapped as a grid of dots or pixels. The introduction of x-ray CT revolutionised medical imaging with cross sectional images of the human body and high contrast between different types of soft tissue. These developments were made possible by analog to digital converters and computers. The multislice spiral CT technology has expands the clinical applications dramatically.
The first MRI devices were tested on clinical patients in 1980. The spread of CT machines is the spur to the rapid development of MRI imaging and the introduction of tomographic imaging techniques into diagnostic nuclear medicine. With technological improvements including higher field strength, more open MRI magnets, faster gradient systems, and novel data-acquisition techniques, MRI is a real-time interactive imaging modality that provides both detailed structural and functional information of the body.
Today, imaging in medicine has advanced to a stage that was inconceivable 100 years ago, with growing medical imaging modalities:
X-ray projection imaging
Computed tomography (CT / CAT)
Ultrasound imaging (US)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)
Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)
Positron emission tomography (PET)
Magnetic source imaging (MSI)
All this type of scans are an integral part of modern healthcare. Because of the rapid development of digital imaging modalities, the increasing need for an efficient management leads to the widening of radiology information systems (RIS) and archival of images in digital form in picture archiving and communication systems (PACS). In telemedicine, healthcare professionals are linked over a computer network. Using cutting-edge computing and communications technologies, in videoconferences, where audio and visual images are transmitted in real time, medical images of MRI scans, x-ray examinations, CT scans and other pictures are shareable.

See also the related poll results: 'In 2010 your scanner will probably work with a field strength of', 'MRI will have replaced 50% of x-ray exams by'
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