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Chemical Shift
 
Chemical shift depends on the nucleus and its environment and is defined as nuclear shielding / applied magnetic field. Nuclei are shielded by a small magnetic field caused by circulating electrons, termed nuclear shielding. The strength of the shield depends on the different molecular environment in that the nucleus is embedded. Nuclear shielding is the difference between the magnetic field at the nucleus and the applied magnetic field.
Chemical shift is measured in parts per million (ppm) of the resonance frequency relative to another or a standard resonance frequency.
The major part of the MR signal comes from hydrogen protons; lipid protons contribute a minor part. The chemical shift between water and fat nuclei is about 3.5 ppm (~220 Hz; 1.5T). Through this difference in resonance frequency between water and fat protons at the same location, a misregistration (dislocation) by the Fourier Transformation take place, when converting MR signals from frequency to spatial domain. This effect is called chemical shift artifact or chemical shift misregistration artifact.

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Further Reading:
  Basics:
FUNDAMENTALS OF MRI: Part III – Forming an MR Image
   by www.e-radiography.net    
Abdominal MRI at 3.0 T: The Basics Revisited
Wednesday, 20 July 2005   by www.ajronline.org    
MRI Resources 
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Chemical Shift ImagingInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
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(CSI) Chemical shift imaging is an extension of MR spectroscopy, allowing metabolite information to be measured in an extended region and to add the chemical analysis of body tissues to the potential clinical utility of Magnetic Resonance. The spatial location is phase encoded and a spectrum is recorded at each phase encoding step to allow the spectra acquisition in a number of volumes covering the whole sample. CSI provides mapping of chemical shifts, analog to individual spectral lines or groups of lines.
Spatial resolution can be in one, two or three dimensions, but with long acquisition times od full 3D CSI. Commonly a slice-selected 2D acquisition is used. The chemical composition of each voxel is represented by spectra, or as an image in which the signal intensity depends on the concentration of an individual metabolite. Alternatively frequency-selective pulses excite only a single spectral component.
There are several methods of performing chemical shift imaging, e.g. the inversion recovery method, chemical shift selective imaging sequence, chemical shift insensitive slice selective RF pulse, the saturation method, spatial and chemical shift encoded excitation and quantitative chemical shift imaging.
See also Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

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• View the DATABASE results for 'Chemical Shift Imaging' (6).Open this link in a new window

 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
1H MR Spectroscopy and Chemical Shift Imaging of the In Vivo Brain at 7 Tesla
Sunday, 26 November 2006   by tobias-lib.uni-tuebingen.de    
MRI evaluation of fatty liver in day to day practice: Quantitative and qualitative methods
Wednesday, 3 September 2014   by www.sciencedirect.com    
  News & More:
MRI-PDFF images successfully measure liver fat content
Tuesday, 28 February 2017   by www.healio.com    
Spin echoes, CPMG and T2 relaxation - Introductory NMR & MRI from Magritek
2013   by www.azom.com    
mDIXON being developed to simplify and accelerate liver MRI
September 2010   by incenter.medical.philips.com    
MRI Resources 
Hospitals - Guidance - Breast MRI - Jobs pool - Safety pool - Spine MRI
 
Chemical Shift ArtifactInfoSheet: - Artifacts - 
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Quick Overview
Please note that there are different common names for this artifact.

Artifact Information
NAME Chemical shift, black boundary, spatial misregistration, relief
DESCRIPTION Black or bright band
REASON Chemical shift, opposed phase image
HELP Fat suppression, smaller water fat shift (high bandwidth), in phase image, SE sequences

During frequency encoding, fat protons precess slower than water protons in the same slice because of their magnetic shielding. Through the difference in resonance frequency between water and fat, protons at the same location are misregistrated (dislocated) by the Fourier transformation, when converting MRI signals from frequency to spatial domain. This chemical shift misregistration cause accentuation of any fat-water interfaces along the frequency axis and may be mistaken for pathology. Where fat and water are in the same location, this artifact can be seen as a bright or dark band at the edge of the anatomy.
Protons in fat and water molecules are separated by a chemical shift of about 3.5 ppm. The actual shift in Hertz (Hz) depends on the magnetic field strength of the magnet being used. Higher field strength increases the misregistration, while in contrast a higher gradient strength has a positive effect. For a 0.3 T system operating at 12.8 MHz the shift will be 44.8 Hz compared with a 223.6 Hz shift for a 1.5 T system operating at 63.9 MHz.


Image Guidance
For artifact reduction helps a smaller water fat shift (higher bandwidth), a higher matrix, an in phase TE or a spin echo technique. Since the misregistration offset is present in the read out axis the patient may be rescanned with this axis parallel to the fat-water interface. Steeper gradient may be employed to reduce the chemical shift offset in mm. Another strategy is to employ specialized pulse sequences such as fat saturation or inversion recovery imaging. Fat suppression techniques eliminate chemical shift artifacts caused by the lack of fat signal.
See also Black Boundary Artifact and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

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• View the DATABASE results for 'Chemical Shift Artifact' (7).Open this link in a new window

 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
MRI Artifact Gallery
   by chickscope.beckman.uiuc.edu    
  News & More:
What is chemical shift artefact? Why does it occur? How many Hz at 1.5 T?
   by www.revisemri.com    
Abdominal MRI at 3.0 T: The Basics Revisited
Wednesday, 20 July 2005   by www.ajronline.org    
Searchterm 'Chemical Shift' was also found in the following services: 
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Chemical Shift Reference
 
A compound with respect to whose frequency the chemical shifts of other compounds can be compared. The standard can be either internal or external to the sample. Because of the need for possible corrections due to differential magnetic susceptibility between an external standard and the sample being measured, the use of an internal standard is generally preferred.
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MRI Resources 
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Chemical Shift Spatial OffsetInfoSheet: - Artifacts - 
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Reduction Index, 
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Image artifact of apparent spatial offset of regions with different chemical shifts along the direction of the frequency encoding gradient;; a similar effect may be found in the slice selection direction.
See Chemical Shift Artifact.
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
1H MR Spectroscopy and Chemical Shift Imaging of the In Vivo Brain at 7 Tesla
Sunday, 26 November 2006   by tobias-lib.uni-tuebingen.de    
MRI Resources 
Supplies - Services and Supplies - MRA - Absorption and Emission - Contrast Enhanced MRI - MRI Physics
 
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