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 'Chemical Shift Artifact' 
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Result : Searchterm 'Chemical Shift Artifact' found in 1 term [] and 7 definitions [], (+ 4 Boolean[] results
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Chemical Shift ArtifactInfoSheet: - Artifacts - 
Case Studies, 
Reduction Index, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Artifacts -
 
Quick Overview
Please note that there are different common names for this artifact.

Artifact Information
NAME Chemical shift, black boundary, spatial misregistration, relief
DESCRIPTION Black or bright band
REASON Chemical shift, opposed phase image
HELP Fat suppression, smaller water fat shift (high bandwidth), in phase image, SE sequences

During frequency encoding, fat protons precess slower than water protons in the same slice because of their magnetic shielding. Through the difference in resonance frequency between water and fat, protons at the same location are misregistrated (dislocated) by the Fourier transformation, when converting MRI signals from frequency to spatial domain. This chemical shift misregistration cause accentuation of any fat-water interfaces along the frequency axis and may be mistaken for pathology. Where fat and water are in the same location, this artifact can be seen as a bright or dark band at the edge of the anatomy.
Protons in fat and water molecules are separated by a chemical shift of about 3.5 ppm. The actual shift in Hertz (Hz) depends on the magnetic field strength of the magnet being used. Higher field strength increases the misregistration, while in contrast a higher gradient strength has a positive effect. For a 0.3 T system operating at 12.8 MHz the shift will be 44.8 Hz compared with a 223.6 Hz shift for a 1.5 T system operating at 63.9 MHz.


Image Guidance
For artifact reduction helps a smaller water fat shift (higher bandwidth), a higher matrix, an in phase TE or a spin echo technique. Since the misregistration offset is present in the read out axis the patient may be rescanned with this axis parallel to the fat-water interface. Steeper gradient may be employed to reduce the chemical shift offset in mm. Another strategy is to employ specialized pulse sequences such as fat saturation or inversion recovery imaging. Fat suppression techniques eliminate chemical shift artifacts caused by the lack of fat signal.
See also Black Boundary Artifact and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

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• Related Searches:
    • In Phase
    • Opposed Phase Image
    • Chemical Shift Spatial Offset
    • Chemical Shift Imaging
    • Chemical Shift
 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
MRI Artifact Gallery
   by chickscope.beckman.uiuc.edu    
  News & More:
What is chemical shift artefact? Why does it occur? How many Hz at 1.5 T?
   by www.revisemri.com    
Abdominal MRI at 3.0 T: The Basics Revisited
Wednesday, 20 July 2005   by www.ajronline.org    
MRI Resources 
Breast MRI - Movies - Artifacts - Absorption and Emission - Cochlear Implant - RIS
 
BandwidthForum -
related threads
 
(BW) Bandwidth is a measure of frequency range, the range between the highest and lowest frequency allowed in the signal. For analog signals, which can be mathematically viewed as a function of time, bandwidth is the width, measured in Hertz of a frequency range in which the signal's Fourier transform is nonzero.
The receiver (or acquisition) bandwidth (rBW) is the range of frequencies accepted by the receiver to sample the MR signal. The receiver bandwidth is changeable (see also acronyms for 'bandwidth' from different manufacturers) and has a direct relationship to the signal to noise ratio (SNR) (SNR = 1/squareroot (rBW). The bandwidth depends on the readout (or frequency encoding) gradient strength and the data sampling rate (or dwell time).
Bandwidth is defined by BW = Sampling Rate/Number of Samples.
A smaller bandwidth improves SNR, but can cause spatial distortions, also increases the chemical shift. A larger bandwidth reduces SNR (more noise from the outskirts of the spectrum), but allows faster imaging.
The transmit bandwidth refers to the RF excitation pulse required for slice selection in a pulse sequence. The slice thickness is proportional to the bandwidth of the RF pulse (and inversely proportional to the applied gradient strength). Lowering the pulse bandwidth can reduce the slice thickness.



Image Guidance
A higher bandwidth is used for the reduction of chemical shift artifacts (lower bandwidth - more chemical shift - longer dwell time - but better signal to noise ratio). Narrow receive bandwidths accentuate this water fat shift by assigning a smaller number of frequencies across the MRI image. This effect is much more significant on higher field strengths. At 1.5 T, fat and water precess 220 Hz apart, which results in a higher shift than in Low Field MRI.
Lower bandwidth (measured in Hz) = higher water fat shift (measured in pixel shift).
See also Aliasing, Aliasing Artifact, Frequency Encoding, and Chemical Shift Artifact.

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• View the DATABASE results for 'Bandwidth' (19).Open this link in a new window

 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
Bandwidth
   by en.wikipedia.org    
  News & More:
Automated Quality Assurance for Magnetic Resonance Image with Extensions to Diffusion Tensor Imaging(.pdf)
   by scholar.lib.vt.edu    
A Real-Time Navigator Approach to Compensating for Motion Artifacts in Coronary Magnetic Resonance Angiography
   by www.cs.nyu.edu    
MRI Resources 
Anatomy - MRI Reimbursement - Mobile MRI - Health - Coils - Education
 
Black Boundary ArtifactInfoSheet: - Artifacts - 
Case Studies, 
Reduction Index, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Artifacts -
 
Quick Overview
Please note that there are different common names for this artifact.

Artifact Information
NAME Black boundary, dark boundary, contour, chemical shift, relief
DESCRIPTION Black contours at boundaries
REASON Chemical shift, opposed phase image, motion shear (flow effects), inversion recovery null point
HELP Smaller water fat shift (high bandwidth), in phase image, SE sequences

Black boundary artifacts are black lines following voxels where both water and fat protons are present in the same voxel. This artifact arise along the boundary of organs or tissues perpendicular to the frequency encoding direction, and occurs preferentially in gradient echo sequences with out of phase echo times.


Image Guidance
Fat suppression techniques eliminate this artifact. For artifact reducing helps a smaller water fat shift (high bandwidth), a higher matrix or/and an in phase TE.
See also Chemical Shift Artifact.

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• View the DATABASE results for 'Black Boundary Artifact' (4).Open this link in a new window

 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
Artifacts in MRI
Saturday, 1 October 2011   by www.huc.min-saude.pt    
What is chemical shift artefact? Why does it occur? How many Hz at 1.5 T?
   by www.revisemri.com    
Searchterm 'Chemical Shift Artifact' was also found in the following service: 
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Chemical Shift
 
Chemical shift depends on the nucleus and its environment and is defined as nuclear shielding / applied magnetic field. Nuclei are shielded by a small magnetic field caused by circulating electrons, termed nuclear shielding. The strength of the shield depends on the different molecular environment in that the nucleus is embedded. Nuclear shielding is the difference between the magnetic field at the nucleus and the applied magnetic field.
Chemical shift is measured in parts per million (ppm) of the resonance frequency relative to another or a standard resonance frequency.
The major part of the MR signal comes from hydrogen protons; lipid protons contribute a minor part. The chemical shift between water and fat nuclei is about 3.5 ppm (~220 Hz; 1.5T). Through this difference in resonance frequency between water and fat protons at the same location, a misregistration (dislocation) by the Fourier Transformation take place, when converting MR signals from frequency to spatial domain. This effect is called chemical shift artifact or chemical shift misregistration artifact.

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• View the DATABASE results for 'Chemical Shift' (29).Open this link in a new window

 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
FUNDAMENTALS OF MRI: Part III Forming an MR Image
   by www.e-radiography.net    
Abdominal MRI at 3.0 T: The Basics Revisited
Wednesday, 20 July 2005   by www.ajronline.org    
MRI Resources 
PACS - MRI Centers - Musculoskeletal and Joint MRI - Education - Examinations - Movies
 
Chemical Shift Spatial OffsetInfoSheet: - Artifacts - 
Case Studies, 
Reduction Index, 
etc.
 
Image artifact of apparent spatial offset of regions with different chemical shifts along the direction of the frequency encoding gradient;; a similar effect may be found in the slice selection direction.
See Chemical Shift Artifact.
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
1H MR Spectroscopy and Chemical Shift Imaging of the In Vivo Brain at 7 Tesla
Sunday, 26 November 2006   by tobias-lib.uni-tuebingen.de    
MRI Resources 
MRI Reimbursement - Implant and Prosthesis - DICOM - Chemistry - Devices - Process Analysis
 
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