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Displacement Encoding with Stimulated EchoesInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
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(DENSE) Displacement Encoding with Stimulated Echoes is a functional cardiac MRI pulse sequence, used to create maps of myocardial displacement with high resolution.
The DENSE magnitude images produce black blood images to show better myocard-blood contrast and to reduce motion artifacts.
See also Myocardial Late Enhancement, Spin Tagging, Coronary Angiography with D-Tagging, Cardiovascular Imaging, and Black Blood MRA.
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Latest Pulse Sequence for Displacement-encoded MR Imaging Incorporates Essential Technical Improvements for Multiphase Measurement of Intramyocardial Strain
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Echo Offset
Echo offset is the time setting of spin echo and gradient echo to be not coincident and to generate phase differences between different spectral line signals (e.g., water and fat). The echo offset is the product of the frequency line difference and the time difference (TD) in the echo times and is equal to the magnitude of the result of the phase difference between two spectral lines. Phases may not change linearly with echo offset time in the presence of a large field inhomogeneity. An echo offset excitation pulse sequence can be used in the magnetic field mapping method, to generate maps from which the standard deviation of the phase difference can be calculated.
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Field Even Echo Rephasing
The FEER method was the first clinically useful flow quantification method using phase effects, from which all spin phase related flow quantification techniques currently in use are derived.
In this sequence a gradient echo is measured after a gradient with flow compensation. The measured signal phase should be zero for all pixels. A deviation from gradient symmetry by shifting the gradient ramp slightly away from the symmetry condition will impart a defined phase shift to the magnetization vectors associated with spins from pixels with flow.
Slight stable variations in the magnetic field across the imaging volume will prevent the phase angle from being uniformly zero throughout the volume in the flow-compensated image. The first image (acquired without gradient shift) serves as reference, defining the values of all pixel phase angles in the flow (motion) compensated sequence. Ensuing images with gradient phase shifts imparted in each of the 3 spatial axes will then permit measurement of the 3 components of the velocity vector v = (vx, vy, vz) by calculating the respective phases px, py and pz by simply subtracting the pixel phases measured in the compensated image from the 3 images with a well defined velocity sensitization.
The determination of all 3 components of the velocity vector requires the measurement of 4 images.
The phase quantification requires an imaging time four times longer than the simple measurement of a phase image and associated magnitude image. If only one arbitrary flow direction is of interest, it suffices to acquire the reference image plus one image velocity sensitized in the arbitrary direction of interest.
See also Flow Quantification.
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(MRS / MRSI - Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging) A method using the NMR phenomenon to identify the chemical state of various elements without destroying the sample. MRS therefore provides information about the chemical composition of the tissues and the changes in chemical composition, which may occur with disease processes.
Although MRS is primarily employed as a research tool and has yet to achieve widespread acceptance in routine clinical practice, there is a growing realization that a noninvasive technique, which monitors disease biochemistry can provide important new information for the clinician.
The underlying principle of MRS is that atomic nuclei are surrounded by a cloud of electrons, which very slightly shield the nucleus from any external magnetic field. As the structure of the electron cloud is specific to an individual molecule or compound, then the magnitude of this screening effect is also a characteristic of the chemical environment of individual nuclei.
In view of the fact that the resonant frequency is proportional to the magnetic field that it experiences, it follows that the resonant frequency will be determined not only by the external applied field, but also by the small field shift generated by the electron cloud. This shift in frequency is called the chemical shift (see also Chemical Shift). It should be noted that chemical shift is a very small effect, usually expressed in ppm of the main frequency. In order to resolve the different chemical species, it is therefore necessary to achieve very high levels of homogeneity of the main magnetic field B0. Spectra from humans usually require shimming the magnet to approximately one part in 100. High resolution spectra of liquid samples demand a homogeneity of about one part in 1000.
In addition to the effects of factors such as relaxation times that can affect the NMR signal, as seen in magnetic resonance imaging, effects such as J-modulation or the transfer of magnetization after selective excitation of particular spectral lines can affect the relative strengths of spectral lines.
In the context of human MRS, two nuclei are of particular interest - H-1 and P-31. (PMRS - Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy) PMRS is mainly employed in studies of the brain where prominent peaks arise from NAA, choline containing compounds, creatine and creatine phosphate, myo-inositol and, if present, lactate; phosphorus 31 MR spectroscopy detects compounds involved in energy metabolism (creatine phosphate, adenosine triphosphate and inorganic phosphate) and certain compounds related to membrane synthesis and degradation. The frequencies of certain lines may also be affected by factors such as the local pH. It is also possible to determine intracellular pH because the inorganic phosphate peak position is pH sensitive.
If the field is uniform over the volume of the sample, "similar" nuclei will contribute a particular frequency component to the detected response signal irrespective of their individual positions in the sample. Since nuclei of different elements resonate at different frequencies, each element in the sample contributes a different frequency component. A chemical analysis can then be conducted by analyzing the MR response signal into its frequency components.
See also Spectroscopy.

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Magnetization Transfer
(MT) Magnetization Transfer was accidentally discovered by Wolff and Balaban in 1989. Conventional MRI is based on the differences in T1, T2 and the proton density (water content and the mobility of water molecules) in tissue; it relies primarily on free (bulk) water protons. The T2 relaxation times are greater than 10 ms and detectable. The T2 relaxation times of protons associated with macromolecules are less then 1 ms and not detectable in MRI.
Magnetization Transfer Imaging (MTI) is based on the magnetization interaction (through dipolar and/or chemical exchange) between bulk water protons and macromolecular protons. By applying an off resonance radio frequency pulse to the macromolecular protons, the saturation of these protons is then transferred to the bulk water protons. The result is a decrease in signal (the net magnetization of visible protons is reduced), depending on the magnitude of MT between tissue macromolecules and bulk water. With MTI, the presence or absence of macromolecules (e.g. in membranes, brain tissue) can be seen.
The magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) is the difference in signal intensity with or without MT.
See also Magnetization Transfer Contrast.

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