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Result : Searchterm 'Saturation' found in 12 terms [] and 42 definitions []
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Saturation
 
In MR, saturation is a nonequilibrium state with no net magnetization. The same amount of nuclear spins is aligned against and with the magnetic field. Saturation methods like FatSat, SPIR etc., work with a frequency selective saturation pulse for a specific chemical shift applied before the actual sequence starts. This saturation pulse adjusts the magnetization from tissue components to zero. The hydrogen nuclei of fat and water resonate at different frequencies, which makes it possible to excite just the fat with repeatedly applying RF pulses at the Larmor frequency with interpulse times compared to T1. The resulting signal is then destroyed with a gradient pulse (Spoiler Gradient Pulse). Fat is the chemical compound to be saturated at a fat saturation sequence. When the actual sequence follows, (e.g., a spin echo sequence) the unwanted suppressed component will not resonate.
See also Saturation Recovery.
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• Related Searches:
    • Spectral Selection Attenuated Inversion Recovery
    • Fat Saturation
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    • Spectral Presaturation Inversion Recovery
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Ultrasound  (5) Open this link in a new window
PresaturationInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
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(REST - regional saturation technique / SAT - saturation// Pre-Sat / spatial Pre-Sat) A specialized technique employing repeated RF excitation of structures adjacent to the ROI for the purpose of reducing or eliminating their phase effect artifacts. This presaturation can be performed on both sides parallel or perpendicular to the slice. Vascular ghosting is eliminated by saturation areas parallel (outside) to the slice plane, because flowing blood produces almost no signal. The possibility of moving presaturation (moving REST / traveling SAT) makes sequence planning and scanning comfortable.
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
Techniques of Fat Suppression(.pdf)
   by cds.ismrm.org    
MRI Resources 
MRI Technician and Technologist Schools - Intraoperative MRI - Spectroscopy pool - Guidance - Directories - NMR
 
Fat Saturation
 
(FAT SAT) A specialized technique that selectively saturates fat protons prior to acquiring data as in standard sequences, so that they produce a negligible signal. The presaturation pulse is applied prior to each slice selection. This technique requires a very homogeneous magnetic field and very precise frequency calibration.
Fat saturation does not work well on inhomogeneous volumes of tissue due to a change in the precessional frequencies as the difference in volume affects the magnetic field homogeneity. The addition of a water bag simulates a more homogeneous volume of tissue, thus improving the fat saturation. Since the protons in the water bag are in motion due to recent motion of the bag, phase ghosts can be visualized.
Fat saturation can also be difficult in a region of metallic prosthesis. This is caused by an alteration in the local magnetic field resulting in a change to the precessional frequencies, rendering the chemical saturation pulses ineffective.
See also Fat Suppression, and Dixon.

 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Shoulder Sagittal T2 FatSat FRFSE  Open this link in a new window
    

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 Shoulder Coronal T2 FatSat FRFSE  Open this link in a new window
 Shoulder Axial T2 FatSat FRFSE  Open this link in a new window
    

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 
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• View the DATABASE results for 'Fat Saturation' (9).Open this link in a new window

 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
Techniques of Fat Suppression(.pdf)
   by cds.ismrm.org    
  News & More:
New Imaging Technique Reveals Fatty Hearts In Pre-diabetics
Wednesday, 5 September 2007   by www.sciencedaily.com:80    
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Saturation Pulses
 
Sequence of RF (and gradient) pulses designed to produce saturation, typically in a selected region or set of regions, most often by the use of selective excitation followed by a spoiler pulse. Similar to some spectral suppression techniques. Can be used to reduce signal from flowing blood by saturating regions upstream from region being imaged.
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Partial SaturationInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
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(PS) Excitation technique applying repeated RF pulses in times comparable to or shorter than T1. Incomplete T1 relaxation leads to reduction of the signal amplitude;; there is the possibility of generating images with increased contrast between regions with different relaxation times.
Although partial saturation is also commonly referred to as saturation recovery, that term should properly be reserved for the particular case of partial saturation in which recovery after each excitation effectively takes place from true saturation. A GRE sequence where a = 90° is identical to the partial saturation or saturation recovery pulse sequence.
It does not directly produce images of T1. However, since the measured signal will depend on T1, the method generates contrast between regions with different relaxation times. If T2 and/or T2 effects are minimized through the use of a short echo time TE, the result is a T1 weighted image. It is not a T1 image due to the possible presence of spin density and T2 effects as well as the nonlinear dependence on T1.
The change in signal from a region resulting from a change in the interpulse time, TR, can be used to calculate T1 for the region.
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