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MRI Procedure
The MRI device is located within a specially shielded room (Faraday cage) to avoid outside interference, caused by the use of radio waves very close in frequency to those of ordinary FM radio stations.
The MRI procedure can easily be performed through clothing and bones, but attention must be paid to ferromagnetic items, because they will be attracted from the magnetic field. A hospital gown is appropriate, or the patient should wear clothing without metal fasteners and remove any metallic objects like hairpins, jewelry, eyeglasses, clocks, hearing aids, any removable dental work, lighters, coins etc., not only for MRI safety reasons. Metal in or around the scanned area can also cause errors in the reconstructed images (artifacts). Because the strong magnetic field can displace, or disrupt metallic objects, people with an implanted active device like a cardiac pacemaker cannot be scanned under normal circumstances and should not enter the MRI area.
The MRI machine can look like a short tunnel or has an open MRI design and the magnet does not completely surround the patient. Usually the patient lies on a comfortable motorized table, which slides into the scanner, depending on the MRI device, patients may be also able to sit up. If a contrast agent is to be administered, intravenous access will be placed. A technologist will operate the MRI machine and observe the patient during the examination from an adjacent room. Several sets of images are usually required, each taking some minutes. A typical MRI scan includes three to nine imaging sequences and may take up to one hour. Improved MRI devices with powerful magnets, newer software, and advanced sequences may complete the process in less time and better image quality.
Before and after the most MRI procedures no special preparation, diet, reduced activity, and extra medication is necessary. The magnetic field and radio waves are not felt and no pain is to expect.
Movement can blur MRI images and cause certain artifacts. A possible problem is the claustrophobia that some patients experience from being inside a tunnel-like scanner. If someone is very anxious or has difficulty to lie still, a sedative agent may be given. Earplugs and/or headphones are usually given to the patient to reduce the loud acoustic noise, which the machine produces during normal operation. A technologist observes the patient during the test. Some MRI scanners are equipped with televisions and music to help the examination time pass.
MRI is not a cheap examination, however cost effective by eliminating the need for invasive radiographic procedures, biopsies, and exploratory surgery. MRI scans can also save money while minimizing patient risk and discomfort. For example, MRI can reduce the need for X-ray angiography and myelography, and can eliminate unnecessary diagnostic procedures that miss occult disease.
See also Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI, Medical Imaging, Cervical Spine MRI, Claustrophobia, MRI Risks and Pregnancy.
For Ultrasound Imaging (USI) see Ultrasound Imaging Procedures at

See also the related poll result: 'MRI will have replaced 50% of x-ray exams by'
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ClaustrophobiaForum -
related threads
A psychological reaction to being confined in a relatively small area.
This is a very real psychological danger for some individuals during the MRI procedure. A small percentage of patients is claustrophobic and cannot tolerate the confined space within a closed MRI magnet. Claustrophobia, panic attacks and other psychological stress situations have been reported in about 1-4% of cases as a reason to interrupt the MRI examination. Principally short and wide open MRI devices are advantageous because the percentage of claustrophobic incidents drops significantly.
Detailed explanation of the MRI procedure, careful attention and special equipment (mirrors to look outside the machine, emergency bells) help to reduce claustrophobia significantly. The majority of claustrophobic patients will be sufficiently relaxed with orally or intravenous sedatives.
See also Open MRI.


• View the DATABASE results for 'Claustrophobia' (16).Open this link in a new window

Further Reading:
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MRI guided biopsies are usually performed for lesions that are found on for example liver or breast MRI procedures and that are not seen on computed tomography, ultrasonography or mammography. The identification of cancer on breast MRI is dependent on uptake of intravenous contrast agents.
First an MRI scan, using a dedicated breast coil and biopsy guidance system is performed to found the lesion. After skin disinfection and local anesthesia, the biopsy procedure starts. Possible MR guided interventions include fine needle aspiration, core needle biopsy and vacuum-assisted biopsy (VABB) to sample tissue from the lesion; or wire localization prior to surgery for lesions that are not palpable.
See also Breast MRI.

• View the DATABASE results for 'Biopsy' (10).Open this link in a new window

• View the NEWS results for 'Biopsy' (6).Open this link in a new window.
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Searchterm 'MRI Procedure' was also found in the following services: 
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Brain MRIForum -
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 - Brain MRI -
Brain imaging, magnetic resonance imaging of the head or skull, cranial magnetic resonance tomography (MRT), neurological MRI - they describe all the same radiological imaging technique for medical diagnostic.
Magnetic resonance imaging of the human brain includes the anatomic description and the detection of lesions. Special techniques like diffusion weighted imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and spectroscopy provide also information about the function and chemical metabolites of the brain. MRI provides detailed pictures of brain and nerve tissues in multiple planes without obstruction by overlying bones. Brain MRI is the procedure of choice for most brain disorders. It provides clear images of the brainstem and posterior brain, which are difficult to view on a CT scan. It is also useful for the diagnosis of demyelinating disorders (disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS) that cause destruction of the myelin sheath of the nerve).
With this noninvasive procedure also the evaluation of blood flow and the flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is possible. Different MRA methods, also without contrast agents can show a venous or arterial angiogram. MRI can distinguish tumors, inflammatory lesions, and other pathologies from the normal brain anatomy. However, MRI scans are also used instead other methods to avoid the dangers of interventional procedures like angiography (DSA - digital subtraction angiography) as well as of repeated exposure to radiation as required for computed tomography (CT) and other X-ray examinations.
A (birdcage) bird cage coil achieves uniform excitation and reception and is commonly used to study the brain. Usually a brain MRI procedure includes FLAIR, T2 weighted and T1 weighted sequences in two or three planes.
See also Fetal MRI, Fluid Attenuation Inversion Recovery (FLAIR), Perfusion Imaging and High Field MRI.
See also Arterial Spin Labeling.
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• View the DATABASE results for 'Brain MRI' (14).Open this link in a new window

• View the NEWS results for 'Brain MRI' (32).Open this link in a new window.
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Breast MRIMRI Resource Directory:
 - Breast MRI -
(MR mammography) Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast is particularly useful in evaluation of newly diagnosed breast cancer, in women whose breast tissue is mammographically very dense and for screening in women with a high lifetime risk of breast cancer because of their family history or genetic disposition.
Breast MRI can be performed on all standard whole body magnets at a field strength of 0.5 T - 1.5 Tesla. Powerful gradient strengths over 15 mT/m will help to improve the balance between spatial resolution, scanning speed, and volume coverage. The use of a dedicated bilateral breast coil is obligatory.
Malignant lesions release angiogenic factors that increase local vessel density and vessel permeability. Breast cancer is detectable due to the strong enhancement in dynamic breast imaging that peaks early (about 1-2 min.) after contrast medium injection. If breast cancer is suspected, a breast biopsy may be necessary to secure the diagnosis.
See also Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI, Biopsy and MR Guided Interventions.

Requirements in breast MRI procedures:
Both breasts must be measured without gaps.
Temporal resolution should be sufficient to allow early imaging after contrast agent with dynamic imaging every 60-120 sec.
For the best possible detection of enhancement fat signal should be eliminated either by image subtraction or by spectrally selective fat saturation.
Thin slices are necessary to assure absence of partial volume effects.
Imaging should be performed with a spatial resolution in plane less than 1 mm.

For Ultrasound Imaging (USI) see Breast Ultrasound at

See also the related poll result: 'MRI will have replaced 50% of x-ray exams by'
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Breast MRI Images T2 And T1  Open this link in a new window
 Breast MRI Images T2 And T1 Pre - Post Contrast  Open this link in a new window
 Breast MRI Images T1 Pre - Post Contrast  Open this link in a new window
Radiology-tip.comMammography,  Breast Imaging
Radiology-tip.comBreast Ultrasound

• View the DATABASE results for 'Breast MRI' (13).Open this link in a new window

• View the NEWS results for 'Breast MRI' (41).Open this link in a new window.
Further Reading:
New Screening Guidelines for Women at High Risk for Breast Cancer
Wednesday, 26 September 2007   by    
MRI Improves Breast Cancer Screening in Older BRCA Carriers
Monday, 5 January 2015   by    
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Researchers to develop new hybrid PET/MRI system for improved breast cancer diagnosis
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Additional Breast Cancer Tumors Found on MRI After Mammography May Be Larger, More Aggressive
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Preoperative MRI May Overdiagnose Contralateral Breast Cancer
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