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 'Saturation Pulses' 
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Saturation Pulses
Sequence of RF (and gradient) pulses designed to produce saturation, typically in a selected region or set of regions, most often by the use of selective excitation followed by a spoiler pulse. Similar to some spectral suppression techniques. Can be used to reduce signal from flowing blood by saturating regions upstream from region being imaged.
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Field of View
(FOV) Defined as the size of the two or three dimensional spatial encoding area of the image. Usually defined in units of mm². The FOV is the square image area that contains the object of interest to be measured. The smaller the FOV, the higher the resolution and the smaller the voxel size but the lower the measured signal. Useful for decreasing the scantime is a field of view different in the frequency and phase encoding directions (rectangular field of view - RFOV).
The magnetic field homogeneity decreases as more tissue is imaged (greater FOV). As a result the precessional frequencies change across the imaging volume. That can be a problem for fat suppression imaging. This fat is precessing at the expected frequency only in the center of the imaging volume. E.g. frequency specific fat saturation pulses become less effective when the field of view is increased. It is best to use smaller field of views when applying fat saturation pulses.

Image Guidance
Smaller FOV required higher gradient strength and concludes low signal. Therefore you have to find a compromise between these factors. The right choice of the field of view is important for MR image quality. When utilizing small field of views and scanning at a distance from the isocenter (more problems with artifacts) it is obviously important to ensure that the region of interest is within the scanning volume.
A smaller FOV in one direction is available with the function rectangular field of view (RFOV).
See also Field Inhomogeneity Artifact.
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Further Reading:
Image Characteristics and Quality
  News & More:
Optimizing Musculoskeletal MR
Path Found to a Combined MRI and CT Scanner
Wednesday, 20 March 2013   by    
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Aliasing ArtifactInfoSheet: - Artifacts - 
Case Studies, 
Reduction Index, 
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 - Artifacts -
Quick Overview
Please note that there are different common names for this MRI artifact.

Artifact Information
NAME Aliasing, backfolding, foldover, phase wrapping, wrap around
DESCRIPTION Image wrap around
REASON Undersampling in k-space
HELP Larger FOV, oversampling, foldover suppression

Aliasing is an artifact that occurs in MR images when the scanned body part is larger than field of view (FOV). As a consequence of the acquired k-space frequencies not being sampled densely enough, whereby portions of the object outside of the desired FOV get mapped to an incorrect location inside the FOV. The cyclical property of the Fourier transform fills the missing data of the right side with data from behind the FOV of the left side and vice versa. This is caused by a too small number of samples acquired in, e.g. the frequency encoding direction, therefore the spectrums will overlap, resulting in a replication of the object in the x direction.
Aliasing in the frequency direction can be eliminated by twice as fast sampling of the signal or by applying frequency specific filters to the received signal.
A similar problem occurs in the phase encoding direction, where the phases of signal-bearing tissues outside of the FOV in the y-direction are a replication of the phases that are encoded within the FOV. Phase encoding gradients are scaled for the field of view only, therefore tissues outside the FOV do not get properly phase encoded relative to their actual position and 'wraps' into the opposite side of the image.

Image Guidance
Use a larger FOV, RFOV or 3D Volume, apply presaturation pulses to the undesired tissue, adjust the position of the FOV, or select a small coil which will only receive signal from objects inside or near the coil. The number of phase encoding steps must be increased in phase direction, unfortunately resulting in longer scan times.
When this is not possible it can be corrected by oversampling the data. Aliasing is eliminated by Oversampling in frequency direction. No Phase Wrap (Foldover Suppression) options typically correct the phase encoding by doubling the field of view, doubling the number of phase encodes (to keep resolution constant) and halving the number of averages (to keep scan time constant) then discarding the additional data and processing the image within the desired field of view (but this is more time consuming).
Tissue outside this doubled area can be folded nevertheless into the image as phase wrap. In this case combine more than 2 number of excitations / number of signal averages with foldover suppression.
See also Aliasing, Foldover Suppression, Oversampling, and Artifact Reduction - Aliasing.


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Black Blood MRAForum -
related threadsInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
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 - Cardiovascular Imaging -
With this magnetic resonance angiography technique flowing blood appears dark.
MR black blood techniques have been developed for cardiovascular imaging to improve segmentation of myocardium from the blood pool. Black blood MRA techniques decrease the signal from blood with reference to the myocardium and make it easier to perform cardiac chamber segmentation.
ECG gated spin echo sequences with presaturation pulses for magnetization preparation will show strong intravascular signal loss due to flow effects when appropriate imaging conditions including spatial presaturation are used. The sequence use the flow void effect as blood passes rapidly through the selected slice.
For dark blood preparation, a pair of nonselective and selective 180° inversion pulses are used, followed by a long inversion time to null signal from inflowing blood. A second selective inversion pulse can also be applied with short inversion time to null the fat signal. These in cardiac imaging used black blood techniques are referred to as double inversion recovery T1 measurement turbo spin echo or fast spin echo, and double-inversion recovery STIR.
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DixonInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
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The Dixon technique is a MRI method used for fat suppression and/or fat quantification. The difference in magnetic resonance frequencies between fat and water-bound protons allows the separation of water and fat images based on the chemical shift effect.
This imaging technique is named after Dixon, who published in 1984 the basic idea to use phase differences to calculate water and fat components in postprocessing. Dixon's method relies on acquiring an image when fat and water are 'in phase', and another in 'opposed phase' (out of phase). These images are then added together to get water-only images, and subtracted to get fat-only images. Therefore, this sequence type can deliver up to 4 contrasts in one measurement: in phase, opposed phase, water and fat images. An additional benefit of Dixon imaging is that source images and fat images are also available to the diagnosing physician.
The original two point Dixon sequence (number of points means the number of images acquired at different TE) had limited possibilities to optimize the echo time, spatial resolution, slice thickness, and scan time; but Dixon based fat suppression can be very effective in areas of high magnetic susceptibility, where other techniques fail. This insensitivity to magnetic field inhomogeneity and the possibility of direct image-based water and fat quantification have currently generated high research interests and improvements to the basic method (three point Dixon).
The combination of Dixon with gradient echo sequences allows for example liver imaging with 4 image types in one breath hold. With Dixon TSE/FSE an excellent fat suppression with high resolution can be achieved, particularly useful in imaging of the extremities.
For low bandwidth imaging, chemical shift correction of fat images can be made before recombination with water images to produce images free of chemical shift displacement artifacts. The need to acquire more echoes lengthens the minimum scan time, but the lack of fat saturation pulses extends the maximum slice coverage resulting in comparable scan time.

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Further Reading:
Separation of fat and water signal in magnetic resonanace imaging
2011   by    
Direct Water and Fat Determination in Two-Point Dixon Imaging
April 2013   by    
MRI evaluation of fatty liver in day to day practice: Quantitative and qualitative methods
Wednesday, 3 September 2014   by    
Measurement of Fat/Water Ratios in Rat Liver Using 3DThree-Point Dixon MRI
2004   by    
  News & More:
Liver Imaging Today
February 2013   by    
mDIXON being developed to simplify and accelerate liver MRI
September 2010   by    
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