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Result : Searchterm 'Oversampling' found in 3 terms [] and 7 definitions []
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Oversampling
 
Oversampling is the increase in data to avoid aliasing and wrap around artifacts. Aliasing is the incorrectly mapping of tissue signal from outside the FOV to a location inside the FOV. This is caused by the fact, that the acquired k-space frequency data is not sampled density enough.
Oversampling in frequency direction, done by increasing the sampling frequency, prevents this aliasing artifact. The proper frequency based on the sampling theorem (Shannon sampling theorem/Nyquist sampling theorem) must be at least twice the frequency of each frequency component in the incoming signal. All frequency components above this limit will be aliased to frequencies between zero and half of the sampling frequency and combined with the proper signal information, which creates the artifact. Oversampling creates a larger field of view, more data needs to be stored and processed, but this is for modern MRI systems not a real problem. Oversampling in phase direction (no phase wrap), to eliminate wrap around artifacts, by increasing the number of phase encoding steps, results in longer scan/processing times.
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    • Phase Wrapping Artifact
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    • Foldover Suppression
 
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The Basics of MRI
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The Scientist and Engineer's Guide to Digital Signal Processing
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Phase Oversampling
 
The data acquisition beyond the FOV in phase encoding direction, with doubling the number of acquisitions and the scan time. See also Oversampling and Aliasing Artifact.
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Readout Oversampling
 
Doubling the sampling points in frequency encoding direction without expanding the scan time. The additional part is discarded after reconstruction. See also Oversampling and Aliasing Artifact.
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Aliasing ArtifactInfoSheet: - Artifacts - 
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Quick Overview
Please note that there are different common names for this MRI artifact.

Artifact Information
NAME Aliasing, backfolding, foldover, phase wrapping, wrap around
DESCRIPTION Image wrap around
REASON Undersampling in k-space
HELP Larger FOV, oversampling, foldover suppression

Aliasing is an artifact that occurs in MR images when the scanned body part is larger than field of view (FOV). As a consequence of the acquired k-space frequencies not being sampled densely enough, whereby portions of the object outside of the desired FOV get mapped to an incorrect location inside the FOV. The cyclical property of the Fourier transform fills the missing data of the right side with data from behind the FOV of the left side and vice versa. This is caused by a too small number of samples acquired in, e.g. the frequency encoding direction, therefore the spectrums will overlap, resulting in a replication of the object in the x direction.
Aliasing in the frequency direction can be eliminated by twice as fast sampling of the signal or by applying frequency specific filters to the received signal.
A similar problem occurs in the phase encoding direction, where the phases of signal-bearing tissues outside of the FOV in the y-direction are a replication of the phases that are encoded within the FOV. Phase encoding gradients are scaled for the field of view only, therefore tissues outside the FOV do not get properly phase encoded relative to their actual position and 'wraps' into the opposite side of the image.


Image Guidance
Use a larger FOV, RFOV or 3D Volume, apply presaturation pulses to the undesired tissue, adjust the position of the FOV, or select a small coil which will only receive signal from objects inside or near the coil. The number of phase encoding steps must be increased in phase direction, unfortunately resulting in longer scan times.
When this is not possible it can be corrected by oversampling the data. Aliasing is eliminated by Oversampling in frequency direction. No Phase Wrap (Foldover Suppression) options typically correct the phase encoding by doubling the field of view, doubling the number of phase encodes (to keep resolution constant) and halving the number of averages (to keep scan time constant) then discarding the additional data and processing the image within the desired field of view (but this is more time consuming).
Tissue outside this doubled area can be folded nevertheless into the image as phase wrap. In this case combine more than 2 number of excitations / number of signal averages with foldover suppression.
See also Aliasing, Foldover Suppression, Oversampling, and Artifact Reduction - Aliasing.

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Foldover SuppressionInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
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A problem occurs in the phase encoding direction, where the phases of signal-bearing tissues outside of the FOV in the y-direction are a replication of the phases that are encoded within the FOV. This signal will be mapped (wrapped, backfolded) back into the image at incorrect locations.
Foldover suppression (phase oversampling, no phase wrap) is a user-selectable parameter that maps this signal to its correct location outside the FOV, then discards any signal from outside the FOV before displaying the image. In order to be able to choose this parameter, in most cases more than an average is necessary.
See also Phase Wrapping Artifact and Oversampling.
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Further Reading:
  News & More:
Guidelines for Developing Automated Quality Control Procedures for Brain Magnetic Resonance Images Acquired in Multi-Centre Clinical Trials
Tuesday, 26 April 2011   by www.intechopen.com    
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