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Flip Angle
 
(FA) The flip angle a is used to define the angle of excitation for a field echo pulse sequence. It is the angle to which the net magnetization is rotated or tipped relative to the main magnetic field direction via the application of a RF excitation pulse at the Larmor frequency. It is also referred to as the tip angle, nutation angle or angle of nutation.
The radio frequency power (which is proportional to the square of the amplitude) of the pulse is proportional to a through which the spins are tilted under its influence. Flip angles between 0° and 90° are typically used in gradient echo sequences, 90° and a series of 180° pulses in spin echo sequences and an initial 180° pulse followed by a 90° and a 180° pulse in inversion recovery sequences.
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
What MRI Sequences Produce the Highest Specific Absorption Rate (SAR), and Is There Something We Should Be Doing to Reduce the SAR During Standard Examinations?
Thursday, 16 April 2015   by www.ajronline.org    
Mapping of low flip angles in magnetic resonance(.pdf)
Saturday, 1 January 2011   by www.hal.inserm.fr    
  News & More:
A practical guideline for T1 reconstruction from various flip angles in MRI
Saturday, 1 October 2016   by journals.sagepub.com    
Clinical evaluation of a speed optimized T2 weighted fast spin echo sequence at 3.0 T using variable flip angle refocusing, half-Fourier acquisition and parallel imaging
Wednesday, 25 October 2006
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Partial Flip Angle
 
(PFI) A flip angle of less than 90° only partially converts the z-magnetization, leaving a fraction cos a along the longitudinal direction. A flip angle of 90° converts all the z-magnetization into xy-magnetization.
When the repetition time is shorter than T1, the use of a partial flip angle can lead to higher signal intensity. The maximum signal intensity is given by the Ernst angle. For spin echo pulse sequences using an odd number of 180° pulses, an effect similar to the use of a partial flip angle is obtained by using a flip angle greater than 90° to offset the inversion of the remaining longitudinal magnetization by the 180° pulse.
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Variable Flip Angle
 
The temporal variation of the flip angle (from one RF pulse to the next) to enhance SNR, and/or equalize the signal intensity for each phase encoding step.
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
A practical guideline for T1 reconstruction from various flip angles in MRI
Saturday, 1 October 2016   by journals.sagepub.com    
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Fast Low Angle ShotInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
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(FLASH) A fast sequence producing signals called gradient echo with low flip angles. FLASH sequences are modifications, which incorporate or remove the effects of transverse coherence respectively.
FLASH uses a semi-random spoiler gradient after each echo to spoil the steady state (to destroy any remaining transverse magnetization) by causing a spatially dependent phase shift. The transverse steady state is spoiled but the longitudinal steady state depends on the T1 values and the flip angle. Extremely short TR times are possible, as a result the sequence provides a mechanism for gaining extremely high T1 contrast by imaging with TR times as brief as 20 to 30 msec while retaining reasonable signal levels. It is important to keep the TE as short as possible to suppress susceptibility artifacts.
The T1 contrast depends on the TR as well as on flip angle, with short TE.
Small flip angles and short TR results in proton density, and long TR in T2* weighting.
With large flip angles and short TR result T1 weighted images.

TR and flip angle adjustment:

TR 3000 ms, Flip Angle 90°
TR 1500 ms, Flip Angle 45°
TR 700 ms, Flip Angle 25°
TR 125 ms, Flip Angle 10°
The apparent ability to trade TR against flip angle for purposes of contrast and the variation in SNR as the scan time (TR) is reduced.
See also Gradient Echo Sequence.

 
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Further Reading:
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Real-time MRI: recent advances using radial FLASH
Wednesday, 4 April 2012   by www.futuremedicine.com    
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Motion Compensation in MR Imaging
   by ccn.ucla.edu    
Turbo-FLASH Based Arterial Spin Labeled Perfusion MRI at 7 T
Thursday, 20 June 2013   by www.plosone.org    
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Gradient Echo SequenceForum -
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Gradient Echo Sequence Timing Diagram (GRE - sequence) A gradient echo is generated by using a pair of bipolar gradient pulses. In the pulse sequence timing diagram, the basic gradient echo sequence is illustrated. There is no refocusing 180° pulse and the data are sampled during a gradient echo, which is achieved by dephasing the spins with a negatively pulsed gradient before they are rephased by an opposite gradient with opposite polarity to generate the echo.
See also the Pulse Sequence Timing Diagram. There you will find a description of the components.
The excitation pulse is termed the alpha pulse a. It tilts the magnetization by a flip angle a, which is typically between 0° and 90°. With a small flip angle there is a reduction in the value of transverse magnetization that will affect subsequent RF pulses. The flip angle can also be slowly increased during data acquisition (variable flip angle: tilt optimized nonsaturation excitation). The data are not acquired in a steady state, where z-magnetization recovery and destruction by ad-pulses are balanced. However, the z-magnetization is used up by tilting a little more of the remaining z-magnetization into the xy-plane for each acquired imaging line.
Gradient echo imaging is typically accomplished by examining the FID, whereas the read gradient is turned on for localization of the signal in the readout direction. T2* is the characteristic decay time constant associated with the FID. The contrast and signal generated by a gradient echo depend on the size of the longitudinal magnetization and the flip angle. When a = 90° the sequence is identical to the so-called partial saturation or saturation recovery pulse sequence. In standard GRE imaging, this basic pulse sequence is repeated as many times as image lines have to be acquired. Additional gradients or radio frequency pulses are introduced with the aim to spoil to refocus the xy-magnetization at the moment when the spin system is subject to the next a pulse.
As a result of the short repetition time, the z-magnetization cannot fully recover and after a few initial a pulses there is an equilibrium established between z-magnetization recovery and z-magnetization reduction due to the a pulses.
Gradient echoes have a lower SAR, are more sensitive to field inhomogeneities and have a reduced crosstalk, so that a small or no slice gap can be used. In or out of phase imaging depending on the selected TE (and field strength of the magnet) is possible. As the flip angle is decreased, T1 weighting can be maintained by reducing the TR. T2* weighting can be minimized by keeping the TE as short as possible, but pure T2 weighting is not possible. By using a reduced flip angle, some of the magnetization value remains longitudinal (less time needed to achieve full recovery) and for a certain T1 and TR, there exist one flip angle that will give the most signal, known as the "Ernst angle".
Contrast values:
PD weighted: Small flip angle (no T1), long TR (no T1) and short TE (no T2*)
T1 weighted: Large flip angle (70°), short TR (less than 50ms) and short TE
T2* weighted: Small flip angle, some longer TR (100 ms) and long TE (20 ms)

Classification of GRE sequences can be made into four categories:
T1 weighted or incoherent/(RF or gradient) spoiled GRE sequences
T1/T2* weighted or coherent//refocused GRE sequences
T2 weighted contrast enhanced GRE sequences
ultrafast GRE sequences
See also Gradient Recalled Echo Sequence, Spoiled Gradient Echo Sequence, Refocused Gradient Echo Sequence, Ultrafast Gradient Echo Sequence.
 
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
Enhanced Fast GRadient Echo 3-Dimensional (efgre3D) or THRIVE
   by www.mri.tju.edu    
Imaging strategies for uncooperative patients
Sunday, 1 January 2017   by posterng.netkey.at    
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MRI evaluation of fatty liver in day to day practice: Quantitative and qualitative methods
Wednesday, 3 September 2014   by www.sciencedirect.com    
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Monday, 1 September 2008   by www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov    
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