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Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ImagingMRI Resource Directory:
 - NMR -
 
Creation of images of objects such as the body by use of the nuclear magnetic resonance phenomenon. The immediate practical application involves imaging the distribution of hydrogen nuclei (protons) in the body. The image brightness in a given region depends on the spin density and the relaxation times, with their relative importance determined by the particular imaging technique employed. Image brightness is also affected by motion such as blood flow. See also Zeugmatography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI.
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Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI
 
(MRI) Magnetic resonance imaging is a noninvasive medical imaging technique that uses the interaction between radio frequency pulses, a strong magnetic field and body tissue to obtain images of slices/planes from inside the body. These magnets generate fields from approx. 2000 times up to 30000 times stronger than that of the Earth. The use of nuclear magnetic resonance principles produces extremely detailed pictures of the body tissue without the need for x-ray exposure and gives diagnostic information of various organs.
Measured are mobile hydrogen nuclei (protons are the hydrogen atoms of water, the 'H' in H20), the majority of elements in the body. Only a small part of them contribute to the measured signal, caused by their different alignment in the magnetic field. Protons are capable of absorbing energy if exposed to short radio wave pulses (electromagnetic energy) at their resonance frequency. After the absorption of this energy, the nuclei release this energy so that they return to their initial state of equilibrium.
This transmission of energy by the nuclei as they return to their initial state is what is observed as the MRI signal. The subtle differing characteristic of that signal from different tissues combined with complex mathematical formulas analyzed on modern computers is what enables MRI imaging to distinguish between various organs. Any imaging plane, or slice, can be projected, and then stored or printed.
The measured signal intensity depends jointly on the spin density and the relaxation times (T1 time and T2 time), with their relative importance depending on the particular imaging technique and choice of interpulse times. Any motion such as blood flow, respiration, etc. also affects the image brightness.
Magnetic resonance imaging is particularly sensitive in assessing anatomical structures, organs and soft tissues for the detection and diagnosis of a broad range of pathological conditions. MRI pictures can provide contrast between benign and pathological tissues and may be used to stage cancers as well as to evaluate the response to treatment of malignancies. The need for biopsy or exploratory surgery can be eliminated in some cases, and can result in earlier diagnosis of many diseases.
See also MRI History and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI).
 
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
A Short History of the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
   by www.teslasociety.com    
MRI's inside story
Thursday, 4 December 2003   by www.economist.com    
On the Horizon - Next Generation MRI
Wednesday, 23 October 2013   by thefutureofthings.com    
  News & More:
Metamaterials boost sensitivity of MRI machines
Thursday, 14 January 2016   by www.eurekalert.org    
MRI technique allows study of wrist in motion
Monday, 6 January 2014   by www.healthimaging.com    
New imaging technology promising for several types of cancer
Thursday, 29 August 2013   by medicalxpress.com    
Study Shows MRI Can Be Used for Orthodontic Imaging
Monday, 12 August 2013   by www.sbwire.com    
MRI method for measuring MS progression validated
Thursday, 19 December 2013   by www.eurekalert.org    
The 2003 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
2003   by www.nobel.se    
MRI Resources 
Stent - Anatomy - Software - Corporations - NMR - Mobile MRI Rental
 
Magnetic Resonance Tomography
 
(MRT) An alternative name of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).

List of alternative names:
Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( MRI )
Magnetic Resonance ( MR )
Magnetic Resonance Tomography ( MRT )
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ( NMR )
Spin Mapping
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
Magnetic Resonance Imaging, History & Introduction
2000   by www.cis.rit.edu    
Tomographic Image Reconstruction
   by www.aapm.org    
  News & More:
MRI-PDFF images successfully measure liver fat content
Tuesday, 28 February 2017   by www.healio.com    
3D Software to Model the Whole Human Body
Thursday, 12 November 2009   by news.softpedia.com    
Searchterm 'Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging' was also found in the following services: 
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Nuclear Magnetic ResonanceMRI Resource Directory:
 - NMR -
 
(NMR) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance is a physical phenomenon of the magnetic property of nuclei, which have a positive nuclear spin quantum number.
Under the influence of an external static magnetic field this nuclei will precess about the direction of the magnetic field with an angular frequency (Larmor frequency). Through absorption and emission of RF energy (gradients, RF coils) at the resonance frequency (Larmor equation) and the processing of this raw data by the Fourier transformation - physical, chemical, electronic, and structural information about molecules can be obtained (NMR Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Magnetic Resonance Imaging).
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
MRI's inside story
Thursday, 4 December 2003   by www.economist.com    
Nuclear magnetic resonance with no magnets
Wednesday, 18 May 2011   by www.physorg.com    
  News & More:
A powder to enhance NMR signals
Thursday, 12 December 2013   by phys.org    
Researchers increase NMR/MRI sensitivity through hyperpolarization of nuclei in diamond
Wednesday, 5 June 2013   by phys.org    
New Paradigm for Nanoscale Resolution MRI Experimentally Achieved
Friday, 27 September 2013   by www.sciencedaily.com    
MRI Resources 
Mobile MRI - Implant and Prosthesis pool - MRI Technician and Technologist Schools - Lung Imaging - Databases - Services and Supplies
 
Spectroscopy
 
Edward Purcell and Felix Bloch discovered the basic of spectroscopy in 1946 (see MRI History). Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR Spectroscopy or MRS) is an analytical tool, based on nuclei that have a spin (nuclei with an odd number of neutrons and/or protons) like 1H, 13C, 17O, 19F, 31P etc..
Through nuclear magnetic principles as precession, chemical shift, spin spin coupling etc., the analysis of the content, purity, and molecular structure of a sample is possible. The spectrum produced by this process contains a number of peaks; the highs and the positions of these peaks allow the exact analysis. Unknown compounds can be matched against spectral libraries. Even very complex organic compounds as enzymes and proteins can be determined. For the wide uses of NMR spectroscopy (from mineralogy to medicine) there is a variety of different techniques available.
See Spectroscopic Imaging Techniques.
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
MR Spectroscopy May Help Avoid Invasive Procedures And Treatments For Recurrent Brain Lesions
Wednesday, 11 February 2009   by www.sciencedaily.com    
MRI spectroscopy is highly sensitive for lipid-soluble metabolites from UC-MSCs
Monday, 9 September 2013   by phys.org    
  News & More:
MR Spectroscopy Detects Biochemical Alterations in Pre-Invasive Breast Cancer Patients
Wednesday, 11 March 2015   by radiationtherapynews.com    
MR Spectroscopy Shows Differences in Brains of Preterm Infants
Monday, 25 November 2013   by www.digitaljournal.com    
Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and MRI Reveal No Evidence for Brain Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Wednesday, 16 March 2011   by leftbrainrightbrain.co.uk    
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy for breast cancer
Wednesday, 11 July 2007   by www.news-medical.net    
MRI Resources 
Intraoperative MRI - Image Quality - Liver Imaging - Brain MRI - Supplies - Breast MRI
 
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