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Result : Searchterm 'Precession' found in 8 terms [] and 32 definitions []
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Precession
 
Precession is a wobbling motion that occurs when a spinning object is the subject of an external force. Relevant to MRI, the proton of a hydrogen nucleus spins around its axis giving it an angular moment (quantum mechanics). Through the protons positive charge and its spin it generates a magnetic field and gets a magnetic dipole moment (MDM) parallel to the rotation axis. If placed in a magnetic field the magnetic dipole moment will precess about the direction of the magnetic field with an angular frequency (Larmor frequency). The Larmor equation dictates that the frequency of the precession at higher field strengths is higher.
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When Is A Proton Just Like a Dreidle?
   by www.simplyphysics.com    
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   by chickscope.beckman.uiuc.edu    
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Precessional Frequency
 
See Larmor Frequency.
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Steady State Free PrecessionInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
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(SFP or SSFP) Steady state free precession is any field or gradient echo sequence in which a non-zero steady state develops for both components of magnetization (transverse and longitudinal) and also a condition where the TR is shorter than the T1 and T2 times of the tissue. If the RF pulses are close enough together, the MR signal will never completely decay, implying that the spins in the transverse plane never completely dephase. The flip angle and the TR maintain the steady state. The flip angle should be 60-90° if the TR is 100 ms, if the TR is less than 100 ms, then the flip angle for steady state should be 45-60°.
Steady state free precession is also a method of MR excitation in which strings of RF pulses are applied rapidly and repeatedly with interpulse intervals short compared to both T1 and T2. Alternating the phases of the RF pulses by 180° can be useful. The signal reforms as an echo immediately before each RF pulse;; immediately after the RF pulse there is additional signal from the FID produced by the pulse.
The strength of the FID will depend on the time between pulses (TR), the tissue and the flip angle of the pulse; the strength of the echo will additionally depend on the T2 of the tissue. With the use of appropriate dephasing gradients, the signal can be observed as a frequency-encoded gradient echo either shortly before the RF pulse or after it; the signal immediately before the RF pulse will be more highly T2 weighted. The signal immediately after the RF pulse (in a rapid series of RF pulses) will depend on T2 as well as T1, unless measures are taken to destroy signal refocusing and prevent the development of steady state free precession.
To avoid setting up a state of SSFP when using rapidly repeated excitation RF pulses, it may be necessary to spoil the phase coherence between excitations, e.g. with varying phase shifts or timing of the exciting RF pulses or varying spoiler gradient pulses between the excitations.
Steady state free precession imaging methods are quite sensitive to the resonant frequency of the material. Fluctuating equilibrium MR (see also FIESTA and DRIVE)and linear combination SSFP actually use this sensitivity for fat suppression. Fat saturated SSFP (FS-SSFP) use a more complex fat suppression scheme than FEMR or LCSSFP, but has a 40% lower scan time.
A new family of steady state free precession sequences use a balanced gradient, a gradient waveform, which will act on any stationary spin on resonance between 2 consecutive RF pulses and return it to the same phase it had before the gradients were applied.
This sequences include, e.g. Balanced Fast Field Echo - bFFE, Balanced Turbo Field Echo - bTFE, Fast Imaging with Steady Precession - TrueFISP and Balanced SARGE - BASG. See also FIESTA.
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Further Reading:
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Comparison of New Methods for Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Articular Cartilage(.pdf)
2002
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Fast Imaging with Steady PrecessionInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
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(TrueFISP) True fast imaging with steady state precession is a coherent technique that uses a fully balanced gradient waveform. The image contrast with TrueFISP is determined by T2*//T1 properties and mostly depending on TR. The speed and relative motion insensitivity of acquisition help to make the technique reliable, even in patients who have difficulty with holding their breath.
Recent advances in gradient hardware have led to a decreased minimum TR. This combined with improved field shimming capabilities and signal to noise ratio, has allowed TrueFISP imaging to become practical for whole-body applications. There's mostly T2* weighting. With the used ultrashort TR-times T1 weighting is almost impossible. One such application is cardiac cine MR with high myocardium-blood contrast. Spatial and temporal resolution can be substantially improved with this technique, but contrast on the basis of the ratio of T2* to T1 is not sufficiently high in soft tissues. By providing T1 contrast, TrueFISP could then document the enhancement effects of T1 shortening contrast agents. These properties are useful for the anatomical delineation of brain tumors and normal structures. With an increase in SNR ratio with minimum TR, TrueFISP could also depict the enhancement effect in myoma uteri. True FSIP is a technique that is well suited for cardiac MR imaging. The imaging time is shorter and the contrast between the blood and myocardium is higher than that of FLASH.
See Steady State Free Precession.

 
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
Accurate T1 Quantification Using a Breath-hold Inversion Recovery TrueFISP Sequence
2003   by rsna2003.rsna.org    
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Steady State Free Precession SequenceInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Sequences -
 
(SFP or SSFP) Steady state free precession is any field or gradient echo sequence where the TR is shorter than the T1 and T2 times of the tissue.
The flip angle and the TR maintain the steady state. The flip angle should be 60-90° if the TR is 100 ms, if the TR is less than 100 ms, than the choice of the flip angle for steady state is 45-60°. The T1 weighting is controlled by TR and flip, the T2 weighting increases with the TE. Common TR is between 20 - 50 msec.
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Further Reading:
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Generic Eddy Current Compensation for Rapid Magnetic Resonance Imaging(.pdf)
   by www.switt.ch    
Cutting Edge Imaging of THE Spine
February 2007   by www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov    
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