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Readout Gradient
Magnetic field gradient applied during the period when the receiver components are on. The application of this gradient, which is active during the period when the echo is being formed, results in the frequency encoding of the object being imaged.
Also called frequency encoding gradient.
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    • Frequency Encoding
    • Golay Coil
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Evaluation of Absorbed Dose by MRI Read-Out
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Frequency Encoding Gradient
(Gf) A frequency encoding gradient produces a magnetic gradient field present during MR signal acquisition to encode signals into different frequencies, depending on their position toward the gradient.
Also called readout gradient.

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Magnetic resonance imaging
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BIOPAC Systems, Inc. Announces MRI Gradient Artifact Removal Tools for ECG and EMG Data
Tuesday, 10 February 2009   by    
Improved shim method based on the minimization of the maximum off-resonance frequency for balanced SSFP
Monday, 1 June 2009   by    
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Magnetic Field Mapping
The mapping of the magnetic field by measuring or imaging the spatial distribution of magnetic field strength, can be performed by scanning with a probe and handles a large range of field strengths, but is slow and tedious. Accurate field maps can be made by measuring the Larmor frequency as a function of position.
The field must be homogeneous enough to allow MR imaging to be performed, than the magnetic field can be mapped by different methods.
1. The adaptation of chemical shift imaging.
2. The faster one measures the change in signal phase in an image obtained with a gradient echo pulse sequence resulting from a change in echo time TE, which is proportional to the local field strength.
Also useful is a spin echo pulse sequence with data collection from two time locations of the readout gradient and the data acquisition interval, where each having a known shift of the acquisition center away from the spin echo.
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Oscillating Gradient System
A gradient system, which changes the readout gradient sinusoidally by connecting a capacitor to the self inductance generated by the gradient coil. Oscillating gradient systems were initially used in the development of EPI.
This electrical oscillating circuit can be driven with minimal power to generate the gradient amplitudes and switching frequencies required for echo planar imaging (EPI).
Disadvantages are that it is not possible to use any arbitrary trapezoidal gradient wave form as can be used in standard MRI. Also, the gradients are inflexible and cannot be used to create other ultrafast sequences and beside, nonlinear sampling of the MR signal is required.

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Partial Echo
(PE) The partial echo technique (also called fractional echo) is used to shorten the minimum echo time. By the acquisition of only a part of k-space data this technique benefits (like all partial Fourier techniques) from the complex conjugate symmetry between the k-space halves (this is called Hermitian symmetry).
The dephasing gradient in the frequency direction is reduced, and the duration of the readout gradient and the data acquisition window are shortened. Partial echo gives a better SNR at a given TE when a smaller FOV or thinner slices are selected, allows a longer sampling time, and a larger water fat shift (WFS, see also bandwidth) due to a lower gradient amplitude. The resolution is not affected. This is often used in gradient echo sequences (e.g. FLASH, Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Angiography) to reduce the echo time and yields a lower gradient moment. The disadvantage of using a partial echo can be a lower SNR, although this may be partly offset by the reduced echo time.
Also called Fractional Echo, Read Conjugate Symmetry, Single Side View.
See also Partial Fourier Technique and acronyms for 'partial echo' from different manufacturers.

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Further Reading:
Method and apparatus for subterranean formation flow imaging
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