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Result : Searchterm 'Pulse Sequence' found in 5 terms [] and 166 definitions []
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Searchterm 'Pulse Sequence' was also found in the following services: 
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News  (2)  Resources  (5)  Forum  (10)  
 
ArtifactForum -
related threadsInfoSheet: - Artifacts - 
Case Studies, 
Reduction Index, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Artifacts -
 
An image artifact is a structure not normally present but visible as a result of a limitation or malfunction in the hardware or software of the MRI device, or in other cases a consequence of environmental influences as heat or humidity or it can be caused by the human body (blood flow, implants etc.). The knowledge of MRI artifacts (brit. artefacts) and noise producing factors is important for continuing maintenance of high image quality. Artifacts may be very noticeable or just a few pixels out of balance but can give confusing artifactual appearances with pathology that may be misdiagnosed.
Changes in patient position, different pulse sequences, metallic artifacts, or other imaging variables can cause image distortions, which can be reduced by the operator; artifacts due to the MR system may require a service engineer.
Many types of artifacts may occur in magnetic resonance imaging. Artifacts in magnetic resonance imaging are typically classified as to their basic principles, e.g.:
Physiologic (motion, flow)
Hardware (electromagnetic spikes, ringing)
Inherent physics (chemical shift, susceptibility, metal)

Several techniques are developed to reduce these artifacts (e.g. respiratory compensation, cardiac gating, eddy current compensation) but sometimes these effects can also be exploited, e.g. for flow measurements.

See also the related poll result: 'Most outages of your scanning system are caused by failure of'
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• Related Searches:
    • Bandwidth
    • Black Boundary Artifact
    • Apodization
    • Artifact by Patient Movement
    • Apparent Diffusion Coefficient
 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
ARTEFACT VERSUS ARTIFACT
Saturday, 26 January 2002   by www.worldwidewords.org    
Which dental materials conflict with the use of MRI?
Saturday, 29 December 2012   by www.drbicuspid.com    
  News & More:
Clinical examination or whole-body magnetic resonance imaging: the Holy Grail of spondyloarthritis imaging
Tuesday, 28 February 2012   by 7thspace.com    
On the Horizon - Next Generation MRI
Wednesday, 23 October 2013   by thefutureofthings.com    
Technical Assessment of Artifact Production from Neuro Endovascular Coil At 3 Tesla MRI: An In Vitro Study
2012   by www.tmps.or.th    
Searchterm 'Pulse Sequence' was also found in the following service: 
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Balanced Fast Field EchoInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Sequences -
 
(bFFE) A FFE sequence using a balanced gradient waveform. A balanced sequence starts out with a RF pulse of 90° or less and the spins in the steady state. Before the next TR in the slice phase and frequency encoding, gradients are balanced so their net value is zero. Now the spins are prepared to accept the next RF pulse, and their corresponding signal can become part of the new transverse magnetization. Since the balanced gradients maintain the transverse and longitudinal magnetization, the result is, that both T1 and T2 contrast are represented in the image. This pulse sequence produces images with increased signal from fluid, along with retaining T1 weighted tissue contrast. Because this form of sequence is extremely dependent on field homogeneity, it is essential to run a shimming prior the acquisition. A fully balanced (refocused) sequence would yield higher signal, especially for tissues with long T2 relaxation times.
See Steady State Free Precession and Gradient Echo Sequence.

 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Cardiac Infarct Short Axis Cine bFFE 1  Open this link in a new window
    
 
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• View the DATABASE results for 'Balanced Fast Field Echo' (3).Open this link in a new window

 
Further Reading:
  News & More:
T1rho-prepared balanced gradient echo for rapid 3D T1rho MRI
Monday, 1 September 2008   by www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov    
Utility of the FIESTA Pulse Sequence in Body Oncologic Imaging: Review
June 2009   by www.ajronline.org    
MRI Resources 
Calculation - General - Process Analysis - MRI Technician and Technologist Career - Stent - Raman Spectroscopy
 
Balanced SequenceForum -
related threadsInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.
 
This family of sequences uses a balanced gradient waveform. This waveform will act on any stationary spin on resonance between 2 consecutive RF pulses and return it to the same phase it had before the gradients were applied. A balanced sequence starts out with a RF pulse of 90° or less and the spins in the steady state. Prior to the next TR in the slice encoding, the phase encoding and the frequency encoding direction, gradients are balanced so their net value is zero. Now the spins are prepared to accept the next RF pulse, and their corresponding signal can become part of the new transverse magnetization. If the balanced gradients maintain the longitudinal and transverse magnetization, the result is that both T1 and T2 contrast are represented in the image.
This pulse sequence produces images with increased signal from fluid (like T2 weighted sequences), along with retaining T1 weighted tissue contrast. Balanced sequences are particularly useful in cardiac MRI. Because this form of sequence is extremely dependent on field homogeneity, it is essential to run a shimming prior the acquisition.
Usually the gray and white matter contrast is poor, making this type of sequence unsuited for brain MRI. Modifications like ramping up and down the flip angles can increase signal to noise ratio and contrast of brain tissues (suggested under the name COSMIC - Coherent Oscillatory State acquisition for the Manipulation of Image Contrast).
These sequences include e.g. Balanced Fast Field Echo (bFFE), Balanced Turbo Field Echo (bTFE), Fast Imaging with Steady Precession (TrueFISP, sometimes short TRUFI), Completely Balanced Steady State (CBASS) and Balanced SARGE (BASG).

 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Cardiac Infarct Short Axis Cine Overview  Open this link in a new window
    

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 Infarct 4 Chamber Cine  Open this link in a new window
    

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 
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• View the DATABASE results for 'Balanced Sequence' (5).Open this link in a new window

 
Further Reading:
  News & More:
Generic Eddy Current Compensation for Rapid Magnetic Resonance Imaging(.pdf)
   by www.switt.ch    
Magnetic resonance imaging guided musculoskeletal interventions at 0.23T: Chapter 4. Materials and methods
2002
Searchterm 'Pulse Sequence' was also found in the following services: 
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Balanced Turbo Field EchoInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Sequences -
 
(BTFE) A gradient echo pulse sequence with a balanced gradient waveform and data acquisition after an initial preparation pulse for contrast enhancement.
See Steady State Free Precession (SSFP) and Balanced Sequence.

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• View the DATABASE results for 'Balanced Turbo Field Echo' (3).Open this link in a new window

Searchterm 'Pulse Sequence' was also found in the following service: 
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Ultrasound  (1) Open this link in a new window
BandwidthForum -
related threads
 
(BW) Bandwidth is a measure of frequency range, the range between the highest and lowest frequency allowed in the signal. For analog signals, which can be mathematically viewed as a function of time, bandwidth is the width, measured in Hertz of a frequency range in which the signal's Fourier transform is nonzero.
The receiver (or acquisition) bandwidth (rBW) is the range of frequencies accepted by the receiver to sample the MR signal. The receiver bandwidth is changeable (see also acronyms for 'bandwidth' from different manufacturers) and has a direct relationship to the signal to noise ratio (SNR) (SNR = 1/squareroot (rBW). The bandwidth depends on the readout (or frequency encoding) gradient strength and the data sampling rate (or dwell time).
Bandwidth is defined by BW = Sampling Rate/Number of Samples.
A smaller bandwidth improves SNR, but can cause spatial distortions, also increases the chemical shift. A larger bandwidth reduces SNR (more noise from the outskirts of the spectrum), but allows faster imaging.
The transmit bandwidth refers to the RF excitation pulse required for slice selection in a pulse sequence. The slice thickness is proportional to the bandwidth of the RF pulse (and inversely proportional to the applied gradient strength). Lowering the pulse bandwidth can reduce the slice thickness.



Image Guidance
A higher bandwidth is used for the reduction of chemical shift artifacts (lower bandwidth - more chemical shift - longer dwell time - but better signal to noise ratio). Narrow receive bandwidths accentuate this water fat shift by assigning a smaller number of frequencies across the MRI image. This effect is much more significant on higher field strengths. At 1.5 T, fat and water precess 220 Hz apart, which results in a higher shift than in Low Field MRI.
Lower bandwidth (measured in Hz) = higher water fat shift (measured in pixel shift).
See also Aliasing, Aliasing Artifact, Frequency Encoding, and Chemical Shift Artifact.

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• View the DATABASE results for 'Bandwidth' (19).Open this link in a new window

 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
Bandwidth
   by en.wikipedia.org    
  News & More:
Automated Quality Assurance for Magnetic Resonance Image with Extensions to Diffusion Tensor Imaging(.pdf)
   by scholar.lib.vt.edu    
A Real-Time Navigator Approach to Compensating for Motion Artifacts in Coronary Magnetic Resonance Angiography
   by www.cs.nyu.edu    
MRI Resources 
Abdominal Imaging - Blood Flow Imaging - Movies - - Journals - Online Books
 
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