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Array Spatial Sensitivity Encoding TechniqueInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Types of, 
(ASSETT) ASSET is a parallel imaging technique of the SENSE type (image domain reconstruction).
Each coil element is sensitivity encoded and the covered spatial zone is mapped. By reducing the field of view in the phase encoding gradient direction the scan time decreases, but this images of each coil element contain foldover artifacts. The sensitivity profiles of the elements are used to calculate unfolded images.
See also Sensitivity Encoding, Generalized Autocalibrating Partially Parallel Acquisition.
• Related Searches:
    • Parallel Imaging Technique
    • Generalized Autocalibrating Partially Parallel Acquisition
    • Phase Encoding Gradient
    • Liver Acquisition with Volume Acquisition
    • Sensitivity Encoding
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Scanning the Abdomen
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Asymmetric Sampling
The collection of more data points on one side of the k-space origin than on the other. With fewer k-space data points prior to the center (echo) a shorter echo time can be attained. Asymmetric acquisition in any phase encoding direction followed by partial-Fourier reconstruction leads to a reduction in imaging time.


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Audio Frequency ArtifactInfoSheet: - Artifacts - 
Case Studies, 
Reduction Index, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Artifacts -
Quick Overview

Artifact Information
NAME Audio frequency
DESCRIPTION Ghosting, lines or spots
REASON Wrong modulation at audio rate, wrong audio signal
HELP AC-line synchronization

Two types of audio-frequency problems are possible:

1. Modulation of the MR signal at an audio rate 2. Audio signal component at digitizer input
Problem 1 looks like ghosts, weak copies of the real image, displaced along the phase encoding direction. The number and intensity of the ghosts depends upon the relationship between the period of the audio modulation and the repetition time.
Problem 2 shows up as lines or spots at the appropriate points along the frequency direction. If there is no correlation between the audio period and TR, lines are generated or discrete spots occur.

Image Guidance
Both problems can be lessened by use of AC-line synchronization (line trigger).

Searchterm 'Phase Encoding' was also found in the following service: 
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Balanced SequenceForum -
related threadsInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Types of, 
This family of sequences uses a balanced gradient waveform. This waveform will act on any stationary spin on resonance between 2 consecutive RF pulses and return it to the same phase it had before the gradients were applied. A balanced sequence starts out with a RF pulse of 90° or less and the spins in the steady state. Prior to the next TR in the slice encoding, the phase encoding and the frequency encoding direction, gradients are balanced so their net value is zero. Now the spins are prepared to accept the next RF pulse, and their corresponding signal can become part of the new transverse magnetization. If the balanced gradients maintain the longitudinal and transverse magnetization, the result is that both T1 and T2 contrast are represented in the image.
This pulse sequence produces images with increased signal from fluid (like T2 weighted sequences), along with retaining T1 weighted tissue contrast. Balanced sequences are particularly useful in cardiac MRI. Because this form of sequence is extremely dependent on field homogeneity, it is essential to run a shimming prior the acquisition.
Usually the gray and white matter contrast is poor, making this type of sequence unsuited for brain MRI. Modifications like ramping up and down the flip angles can increase signal to noise ratio and contrast of brain tissues (suggested under the name COSMIC - Coherent Oscillatory State acquisition for the Manipulation of Image Contrast).
These sequences include e.g. Balanced Fast Field Echo (bFFE), Balanced Turbo Field Echo (bTFE), Fast Imaging with Steady Precession (TrueFISP, sometimes short TRUFI), Completely Balanced Steady State (CBASS) and Balanced SARGE (BASG).

Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Cardiac Infarct Short Axis Cine Overview  Open this link in a new window

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 Infarct 4 Chamber Cine  Open this link in a new window

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman

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Further Reading:
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Generic Eddy Current Compensation for Rapid Magnetic Resonance Imaging(.pdf)
Magnetic resonance imaging guided musculoskeletal interventions at 0.23T: Chapter 4. Materials and methods
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Name for the phase encoding top of the EPI sequence.


• View the DATABASE results for 'Blips' (3).Open this link in a new window

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