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NanoparticleInfoSheet: - Contrast Agents - 
Intro, Overview, 
Types of, 
Nanoparticles may be utilize as a new class of uniform, biodegradable and non-toxic superparamagnetic contrast agents (Fe3O4). The preparation process of these particles is simple, does not involve any toxic material and the yield is close to 100%. The particles are usually of varying sizes from several to several hundred nanometer. They are irregular in shape and highly light-absorbing. They have no magnetic hysteresis at ambient temperatures, which is characteristic of superparamagnetic materials. Each magnetic nanoparticle is composed of a very thin organic nucleus (5-10%) and a thick shell of magnetite.
Different techniques were established for coating these magnetite nanoparticles with several functional and biocompatible polymers. Both the coating and the magnetite production processes are controllable, so that it is possible to prepare particles with a specific size of each particle component as well as particles coated with protein ligands for tissue specific imaging applications.

• View the NEWS results for 'Nanoparticle' (14).Open this link in a new window.

• View the DATABASE results for 'Nanoparticle' (8).Open this link in a new window

Further Reading:
2008   by    
'Gadonanotubes' greatly outperform existing MRI contrast agents
Thursday, 11 August 2005   by    
Lipid Nanoparticles(.pdf)
  News & More:
3D 'bone maps' could spot early signs of osteoporosis
Monday, 27 February 2017   by    
MIT: Remote-control nanoparticles deliver drugs directly into tumors
Friday, 16 November 2007   by    
pH-sensitive nanoparticles detect millimetre-sized tumours
Monday, 6 June 2016   by    
Smarter MRI diagnosis with nano MRI lamp
Monday, 6 February 2017   by    
Biomedical scientist to test nanoparticles as early cancer detection agent
Monday, 28 October 2002
Navigator Technique
The navigator technique measures with an additional quick MR prepulse the position, of e.g. the diaphragm before data collecting. Similar respiratory conditions of the patient can be identified and used to synchronize image data acquisition so that respiration induced image blurring is minimized by either respiratory ordered phase encoding or respiratory gating.
The prepulse sequence images a small area perpendicular to the structure, which is moving. The contrast of the interface between the diaphragm and the lung should be high to permit easy automatic detection. After data acquisition, the position of the interface is automatically recorded and imaging data are only accepted when the position of the interface falls within a range of prespecified values.
This technique has the advantage of greater accuracy than other respiratory gating (therefore used for coronary angiography) and has no need for additional sensing MRI equipment, as the MR system itself provides it.

• View the DATABASE results for 'Navigator Technique' (5).Open this link in a new window

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NC100150 InjectionInfoSheet: - Contrast Agents - 
Intro, Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Contrast Agents -
Short name: NC100150, PEG-feron, generic name: Feruglose, preliminary trade name: Clariscan™(1)
NC100150 injection is the code name for an USPIO (ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide) MRI contrast agent under development. Microvessel permeability depends on functional and morphologic characteristics of cancer vessels and on physicochemical properties of the injected contrast medium molecule.
USPIO particles have a favorable pharmacological and tolerance profile and are being tested clinically of the potential for the quantitative characterization of tumor microvasculature and specifically for measures of the microvessel permeability. Iron-based products take advantage of their large molecular size, which prevents diffusion into body tissues. These agents are disposed of by the liver and spleen as particulate matter.
NC100150 Injection (Nycomed Amersham, Amersham Health ) consists of USPIO particles that are composed of single crystals (4- to 7-nm diameter) and stabilized with a carbohydrate polyethylene glycol (PEG) coat. The iron oxide particles have to be suspended in an isotonic glucose solution. The final diameter of an USPIO particle is approximately 20 nm. Blood pool half-life is more than two hours in humans; the particles are taken up by the mononuclear phagocyte system and distributed mainly to the liver and spleen.
NC100150 would compete with the contrast agents Ferumoxytol from AMAG Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and Vasovist™ from EPIX Pharmaceuticals, Inc., but at this time the development of NC100150 Injection is discontinued.

1. IMPORTANT: The trade name Clariscan™ planned to be used at the time of Amersham Health is reused (since 2017) for a contrast agent developed by GE Healthcare. The newly developed Clariscan™ by GE Healthcare is a totally different contrast agent with first approvals in March of 2017. Please read Clariscan™.

• View the NEWS results for 'NC100150 Injection' (2).Open this link in a new window.

• View the DATABASE results for 'NC100150 Injection' (5).Open this link in a new window

Necrosis Avid Contrast AgentInfoSheet: - Contrast Agents - 
Intro, Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Contrast Agents -
(NACA) Some porphyrin (e.g. Gadophrin-2) and non-porphyrin (e.g. CEIII-60) paramagnetic chelates are able to specifically accumulate in nonviable tissues and can be applied as a MRI contrast agent for acute myocardial infarction and therapeutic necrosis. This function of necrosis avid contrast agents is a unique pathological targetability. These agents can also be exploited for multipurpose applications, because NACAs also bear other common properties including early systemic distribution, albumin binding, hepatocellular uptake and renal elimination.

See also the related poll result: 'The development of contrast agents in MRI is'

• View the NEWS results for 'Necrosis Avid Contrast Agent' (1).Open this link in a new window.

• View the DATABASE results for 'Necrosis Avid Contrast Agent' (9).Open this link in a new window

Further Reading:
Tumor-targeted MR Contrast Agents: Hype or Future Hope?
November 2004   by    
  News & More:
Rockland Technimed: Tissue Viability Imaging
Saturday, 15 December 2007   by    
Negative Oral Contrast AgentsForum -
there are related threadsInfoSheet: - Contrast Agents - 
Intro, Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Contrast Agents -
Categories of negative oral contrast agents:
Gastrointestinal diamagnetic contrast agents
Gastrointestinal superparamagnetic contrast agents
Negative oral contrast media are usually based on superparamagnetic particles and act by inducing local field inhomogeneities, which results in shortening of both T1 and T2 relaxation times. Superparamagnetic contrast agents have predominant T2 weighted effects. Biphasic contrast media are agents that have different signal intensities on different sequences, depending on the concentration at which they are used.
Suitable materials for oral contrast agents should have little or no absorption by the stomach or intestines, complete excretion, no motion or susceptibility artifacts, affordability, and uniform marking of the gastrointestinal tract. Benefits of negative oral contrast agents are the reduction of ghosting artifacts caused by the lack of signal. Superparamagnetic iron oxides produce also in low concentrations a noticeable signal loss; but can generate susceptibility artifacts especially in gradient echo sequences. Perfluorochemicals do not dilute in the bowel because they are not miscible with water.
High cost, poor availability, and limited evaluations of side effects are possible disadvantages.
Negative oral contrast agents are used e.g., in MRCP, where the ingestion of 600-900 ml of SPIO cancels out the signal intensity of the lumen (in addition after the injection of a gadolinium-based contrast medium, the enhancement of the inflammatory tissues is clearer seen), and in MR abdominal imaging of Crohn's disease in combination with mannitol.

Contrast Guidance
Blueberry or pineapple juices are useable for examinations of the pancreas (MRCP, upper abdominal imaging) as cheep contrast agents, because of the content of magnetic substances (e.g. manganese). See also Ferristene, Ferumoxsil, Oral Magnetic Particles, Gastrointestinal Imaging.

• View the DATABASE results for 'Negative Oral Contrast Agents' (7).Open this link in a new window

Further Reading:
Components of Oral Contrast Agent for Magnetic Resonance Imaging(.pdf)
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