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|The navigator technique measures with an additional quick MR prepulse the position, of e.g. the diaphragm before data collecting. Similar respiratory conditions of the patient can be identified and used to synchronize image data acquisition so that respiration induced image blurring is minimized by either respiratory ordered phase encoding or respiratory gating. |
The prepulse sequence images a small area perpendicular to the structure, which is moving. The contrast of the interface between the diaphragm and the lung should be high to permit easy automatic detection.
After data acquisition, the position of the interface is automatically recorded and imaging data are only accepted when the position of the interface falls within a range of prespecified values.
This technique has the advantage of greater accuracy than other respiratory gating (therefore used for coronary angiography) and has no need for additional sensing MRI equipment, as the MR system itself provides it.
• View the DATABASE results for 'Navigator Technique' (5).
|Short name: NC100150, PEG-feron, generic name: Feruglose, preliminary trade name: Clariscan™|
NC100150 injection is the code name for an USPIO (ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide) MRI contrast agent under development. Microvessel permeability depends on functional and morphologic characteristics of cancer vessels
and on physicochemical properties of the injected contrast medium molecule.
USPIO particles have a favorable pharmacological and tolerance profile and are being tested clinically of the potential for the quantitative
characterization of tumor microvasculature and specifically for measures of the microvessel permeability.
Iron-based products take advantage of their large molecular size, which prevents diffusion into body tissues. These agents are disposed of by the liver and spleen as particulate matter.
NC100150 Injection (Nycomed Amersham, Amersham Health ) consists of USPIO particles that are composed of single crystals (4- to 7-nm diameter) and stabilized with a carbohydrate polyethylene glycol (PEG) coat. The iron oxide particles
have to be suspended in an isotonic glucose solution. The final diameter of an USPIO particle is approximately 20 nm. Blood pool half-life is more than two hours in humans; the particles are taken up by the mononuclear
phagocyte system and distributed mainly to the liver and spleen.
NC100150 would compete with the contrast agents Ferumoxytol from AMAG Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and Vasovist™ from EPIX Pharmaceuticals, Inc., but at this time the development of NC100150 Injection/Clariscan™ is discontinued.
• View the NEWS results for 'NC100150 Injection' (2).
• View the DATABASE results for 'NC100150 Injection' (5).
|(NACA) Some porphyrin (e.g. Gadophrin-2) and non-porphyrin (e.g. CEIII-60) paramagnetic chelates are able to specifically accumulate in nonviable tissues and can be applied as a MRI contrast agent for acute myocardial infarction and therapeutic necrosis. This function of necrosis avid contrast agents is a unique pathological targetability. These agents can also be exploited for multipurpose applications, because NACAs also bear other common properties including early systemic distribution, albumin binding, hepatocellular uptake and renal elimination.|
See also the related poll result: 'The development of contrast agents in MRI is'
• View the NEWS results for 'Necrosis Avid Contrast Agent' (1).
• View the DATABASE results for 'Necrosis Avid Contrast Agent' (9).
| News & More:|
|Categories of negative oral contrast agents:
Negative oral contrast media are usually based on superparamagnetic particles and act by inducing local field inhomogeneities, which results in shortening of both T1 and T2 relaxation times. Superparamagnetic contrast agents have predominant T2 weighted effects.
Biphasic contrast media are agents that have different signal intensities on different sequences, depending on the concentration at which they are used.
Suitable materials for oral contrast agents should have little or no absorption by the stomach or intestines, complete excretion, no motion or susceptibility artifacts, affordability, and uniform marking of the gastrointestinal tract.
Benefits of negative oral contrast agents are the reduction of ghosting artifacts caused by the lack of signal. Superparamagnetic iron oxides produce also in low concentrations a noticeable signal loss; but can generate susceptibility artifacts especially in gradient echo sequences. Perfluorochemicals do not dilute in the bowel because they are not miscible with water.
High cost, poor availability, and limited evaluations of side effects are possible disadvantages.
Negative oral contrast agents are used e.g., in MRCP, where the ingestion of 600-900 ml of SPIO cancels out the signal intensity of the lumen (in addition after the injection of a gadolinium-based contrast medium, the enhancement of the inflammatory tissues is clearer seen), and in MR abdominal imaging of Crohn's disease in combination with mannitol.
Blueberry or pineapple juices are useable for examinations of the pancreas (MRCP, upper abdominal imaging) as cheep contrast agents, because of the content of magnetic substances (e.g. manganese).
See also Ferristene, Ferumoxsil, Oral Magnetic Particles, Gastrointestinal Imaging.
• View the DATABASE results for 'Negative Oral Contrast Agents' (7).