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 'Intravoxel Incoherent Motion' 
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Intravoxel Incoherent Motion
 
(IVIM) Spins moving in fluids with different velocities and possibly in different directions. This is being found to a small degree in all tissues as a result of capillary perfusion or diffusion. Important velocity changes occur as one moves from the vessel wall towards the center of the vessel. Hence, spins (to a variable degree) have different velocities within a single imaging voxel.
This effect can be measured using special pulse sequences such as in diffusion imaging or diffusion weighed imaging. When the velocity differences are marked, as occurs in larger blood vessels, effects due to IVIM are visible in standard MR images and give rise to flow related dephasing. The effects are more visible when longer echo times are used.
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
Diffusion Imaging: From Basic Physics to Practical Imaging
1999   by ej.rsna.org    
  News & More:
EVALUATION OF HUMAN STROKE BY MR IMAGING
2000
Technical Assessment of Artifact Production from Neuro Endovascular Coil At 3 Tesla MRI: An In Vitro Study
2012   by www.tmps.or.th    
MRI Resources 
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Diffusion Weighted SequenceInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Diffusion Weighted Imaging -
 
Diffusion weighted imaging can be performed similar to the phase contrast angiography sequence. The gradients must be increased in amplitude to depict the much slower motions of molecular diffusion in the body.
While a T1 weighted MRI pulse sequence is diffusion sensitive, a quantitative diffusion pulse sequence was introduced by Steijskal and Tanner. Its characteristic features are two strong symmetrical gradient lobes placed on either side of the 180° refocusing pulse in a spin echo sequence. These symmetrical gradient lobes have the sole purpose of enhancing dephasing of spins, thereby accelerating intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) signal loss.
Dephasing is proportional to the square of the time (diffusion time) during which the gradients are switched on and the strength of the applied gradient field. Therefore, the use of high field gradient systems with faster and more sensitive sequences, make diffusion weighting more feasible.
Areas in which the protons diffuse rapidly (swollen cells in early stroke, less restriction to diffusion) will show an increased signal when the echo is measured relative to areas in which diffusion is restricted. For increased accuracy of diffusion measurement and image enhancement, useful motion correction techniques such as navigator echo and other methods should be used. In addition to this, applying the b-value calculated by the strength and duration of motion probing gradients with a high rate of accuracy is very important.
See also Apparent Diffusion Coefficient, ADC Map, Lattice Index Map.

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• View the DATABASE results for 'Diffusion Weighted Sequence' (6).Open this link in a new window

 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
Diffusion-Weighted Imaging
   by spinwarp.ucsd.edu    
Diffusion Imaging: From Basic Physics to Practical Imaging
1999   by ej.rsna.org    
EVALUATION OF HUMAN STROKE BY MR IMAGING
2000
  News & More:
Functional imaging with diffusion-weighted MRI for lung biopsy planning: initial experience
Thursday, 10 July 2014   by 7thspace.com    
Diffusion-weighted MRI sensitive for metastasis in pelvic lymph nodes
Sunday, 15 June 2014   by www.2minutemedicine.com    
Hopkins researchers use diffusion MRI technique to monitor ultrasound uterine fibroid treatment
Monday, 8 August 2005   by www.eurekalert.org    
DWI Best in Subacute Stroke Imaging
Tuesday, 1 June 2004   by www.hospimedica.com    
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Motion Compensation Pulse SequencesInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Sequences -
 
Pulse sequences, designed to be insensitive to flow, e.g. at every even echo, a spin echo sequence is not flow sensitive. Velocity compensation is achieved by using gradients, which are either symmetrical around a 180° pulse and switched on twice as is the case for motion compensated spin echo pulse sequences, or two antisymmetrical gradient lobes without 180° pulse, which is the way to produce a velocity compensated gradient echo pulse sequence.
The signal of the second echo (and all other even echoes) is independent of the velocity of the object. Thus, velocity-based motion effects stemming from the entire voxel or from spins within a voxel (intravoxel incoherent motion) are suppressed with such pulse sequences.
If higher order motion is relevant, as it may be in turbulent jets across valves, acceleration and jerk effects can also be compensated for by the use of appropriate combinations of gradient- and radio frequency pulses.
With the increasingly stronger gradients, echo times in MR systems can be shortened to the point at which effects other than velocity effects hardly ever become relevant.
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• View the DATABASE results for 'Motion Compensation Pulse Sequences' (2).Open this link in a new window

 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
Motion Compensation in MR Imaging
   by ccn.ucla.edu    
  News & More:
Patient movement during MRI: Additional points to ponder
Tuesday, 5 January 2016   by www.healthimaging.com    
Motion-compensation of Cardiac Perfusion MRI using a Statistical Texture Ensemble(.pdf)
June 2003   by www.imm.dtu.dk    
MRI Resources 
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