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Apogee 3500InfoSheet: - Devices -
Intro, 
TypesMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Devices Machines Scanners Systems -
 
www.siui.com/english/product/3500.htm

From SIUI Inc.;
'Dedicated to ultrasound industry, Shantou Institute of Ultrasonic Instruments, Inc. (SIUI) has launched Apogee 3500, the Digital Color Doppler Ultrasound Imaging System.
With latest imaging technologies, high-definition image quality and excellent practical functions, the Apogee 3500 offers optimal solutions for clinical ultrasonic examination.'

'The Apogee 3500 is available with many high-density, super broadband and multi-frequency probes, such as convex, micro-convex, linear, vaginal, rectal and phased array probes, which are widely applied for different clinical diagnoses, including abdomen (liver, kidney, gall-bladder, pancreas), gynecology (uterus, ovary), obstetrics (early pregnancy, basic OB, complete OB, multi gestation, fetal echo), cardiology (adult and pediatric cardiology), small parts (thyroid, galactophore, testicles, neonate), peripheral vascular and prostate.'

Device Information and Specification
APPLICATIONS Abdominal, cardiac, OB/GYN, small parts, vascular
CONFIGURATION Normal system, color - gray scale(256)
TRANSDUCERS Linear, convex and phased array
PROBES STANDARD 1 * Super broadband convex probe, 1* super-broadband linear probe, 1* phased array probe
PROBES FREQUENCY 2.0 MHz ~ 12.0 MHz, broad band, tri-frequency
IMAGING MODES B-mode (B, 2B, 4B), M-mode, B/M-mode, real-time compound imaging, panoramic imaging, trapezoidal imaging (linear probes), spectrum Doppler (PWD and CWD), color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI), color power angio (CPA), tissue harmonic imaging (THI)
IMAGING OPTIONS Real-time ZOOM, zoom rate and position selectable
OPTIONAL PACKAGE Linear, convex, micro-convex, vaginal, rectal, biplane probes; CD-RW drive; DICOM 3.0 interface and software; ...
H*W*D m 1.29 * 0.52 * 0.75
WEIGHT 110 kg
POWER REQUIREMENT AC 220V/110V, 50Hz/60Hz
POWER CONSUMPTION 0.6 KVA
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 Further Reading:
  News & More:
Ultrasound pancreatic anatomyOpen this link in a new window
   by rad.usuhs.mil    
Ultrasound anatomy of the neckOpen this link in a new window
   by rad.usuhs.mil    
Searchterm 'probe' was also found in the following service: 
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Radiology  (2) Open this link in a new windowMRI  (5) Open this link in a new window
B-ModeInfoSheet: - Modes - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:<br> - Modes -
 
Also called B-mode echography, B-mode sonography, 2D-mode, and sonogram.
B-mode ultrasound (Brightness-mode) is the display of a 2D-map of B-mode data, currently the most common form of ultrasound imaging.
The development from A-mode to B-mode is that the ultrasound signal is used to produce various points whose brightness depends on the amplitude instead of the spiking vertical movements in the A-mode. Sweeping a narrow ultrasound beam through the area being examined while transmitting pulses and detecting echoes along closely spaced scan lines produces B-scan images. The vertical position of each bright dot is determined by the time delay from pulse transmission to return of the echo, and the horizontal position by the location of the receiving transducer element.
To generate a rapid series of individual 2D images that show motion, the ultrasound beam is swept repeatedly. The returning sound pulses in B-mode have different shades of darkness depending on their intensities. The varying shades of gray reflect variations in the texture of internal organs. This form of display (solid areas appear white and fluid areas appear black) is also called gray scale.

Different types of displayed B-mode images are:
point two-dimensional, 2D-mode;
point gray scale;
point real-time mode;
point compound B-mode.

The probe movement can be performed manual (compound and static B-scanner) or automatic (real-time scanner).
The image reconstruction can be parallel or sector type.
See also B-Scan, 4B-Mode, and Harmonic B-Mode Imaging.
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 Further Reading:
  Basics:
Medical Physics: Ultrasound - extended reading exerciseOpen this link in a new window
   by www.cyberphysics.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk    
  News & More:
Ultrasound anatomy of the neckOpen this link in a new window
   by rad.usuhs.mil    
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B-ScanMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Modes -
 
B-scan ultrasonography, or B-scan, is a diagnostic test, for example used in ophthalmology to produce a two-dimensional, cross-sectional view of the eye and the orbit. The presentation of the reflected pulses are displayed in rectangular coordinates, in which the travel time of an ultrasound pulse is represented as a shift along one axis, and the probe movement is represented as a shift along the other axis.
See also Ultrasound Imaging Procedures, A-Scan, C-Scan and D-Scan.
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 Further Reading:
  Basics:
Medical Physics: Ultrasound - extended reading exerciseOpen this link in a new window
   by www.cyberphysics.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk    
  News & More:
Ultrasonographic fata morganaOpen this link in a new window
2003   by ndt.oxfordjournals.org    
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BeamformingMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Artifacts -
 
The wider the ultrasound beam, the more severe the problem with volume averaging and the beam-width artifact, to avoid this, the ultrasound beam can be shaped with lenses.
Different possibilities to focus the beam:
point Mechanical focusing is performed by placing an acoustic lens on the surface of the transducer or using a transducer with a concave face.
point Electronic focusing uses multiple phased array (annular or linear) elements, sequentially fired to focus the beam.
Conventional multi-element transducers are electronically focused in order to minimize beam width. This transducer type can be focused electronically only along the long axis of the probe where there are multiple elements, along the short axis (elevation axis) are conventional transducers only one element wide. Electronic focusing in any axis requires multiple transducer elements arrayed along that axis. Short axis focusing of conventional multi-element transducers requires an acoustic lens which has a fixed focal length.
For operation at frequencies at or even above 10 MHz, quantization noise reduces contrast resolution. Digital beamforming gives better control over time delay quantization errors. In digital beamformers the delay accuracy is improved, thus allowing higher frequency operation. In analog beamformers, delay accuracy is in the order of 20 ns.
Phased beamformers are suitable to handle linear phased arrays and are used for sector formats such as required in cardiography to improve image quality. Beamforming in ultrasound instruments for medical imaging uses analog delay lines. The signal from each individual element is delayed in order to steer the beam in the desired direction and focuses the beam.
The receive beamformer tracks the depth and focuses the receive beam as the depth increases for each transmitted pulse. The receive aperture increase with depth. The lateral resolution is constant with depth, and decreases the sensitivity to aberrations in the imaged tissue. A requirement for dynamic control of the used elements is given. Since often a weighting function (apodization) is used for side lobe reduction, the element weights also have to be dynamically updated with depth.
See also Huygens Principle.
Radiology-tip.comBeam
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 Further Reading:
  Basics:
Ultrasound beamforming and image formation(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
2007   by dukemil.bme.duke.edu    
  News & More:
Ultrasonic Testing Using Phased ArraysOpen this link in a new window
   by www.ndt.net    
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Bi-directional IlluminationMRI Resource Directory:<br> - UltraSound Physics -
 
For the flowprobe a vessel is positioned between transducers which generate wide beams of ultrasound to fully illuminate the vessel. The ultrasound beams alternately intersect the flowing blood in upstream and downstream directions. The flowmeter derives an accurate measure of the changes in transit time influenced by the motion of the blood.
See also Bi-directional Flow.
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