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Multi-Frequency ProbeInfoSheet: Probes/Transducers
Intro,
Probes, 
TransducersMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Probes Transducers -
 
Usually, multiple probes are used because most transducers are only able to emit one frequency because the piezoelectric ceramic or crystals within it have a certain inherent frequency.
Multi-frequency probes have multiple crystals with different frequencies and the desired specific frequency can be selected. Advanced probes can emit sound waves at different frequencies for the near and far fields. The disadvantage is that multi-frequency (multifrequency) probes have slower frame rates and therefore they are only useful for imaging of static structures.
See also Dual Frequency Phased Array Transducer and Tri-Frequency Probe.
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• Related Searches:
    • Biplane Probe
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 Further Reading:
  News & More:
Physics Tutorial: Ultrasound PhysicsOpen this link in a new window
   by www.physics247.com    
Searchterm 'probe' was also found in the following service: 
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Radiology  (2) Open this link in a new windowMRI  (5) Open this link in a new window
3D UltrasoundInfoSheet: - Modes - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:<br> - 3d UltraSound -
 
In 3D ultrasound (US) several 2D images are acquired by moving the probe across the body surface or rotating inserted probes. 3D-mode uses the same basic concept of a 2D ultrasound but rather than take the image from a single angle, the sonographer takes a volume image. The volume image that is displayed on the screen is a software rendering of all of the detected soft-tissue combined by specialized computer software to form three-dimensional images.
The 3D volume rendering technique (VR) does not rely on segmentation (segmentation techniques are difficult to apply to ultrasound pictures) and makes it possible to obtain clear 3D ultrasound images for clinical diagnosis. A 3D ultrasound produces a still image. Diagnostic US systems with 3D display functions and linear array probes are mainly used for obstetric and abdominal applications. The combination of contrast agents, harmonic imaging and power Doppler greatly improves 3D US reconstructions.

3D imaging shows a better look at the organ being examined and is used for:
list_point Detection of abnormal fetus development, e.g. of the face and limbs.
list_point Visualization of e.g. the colon and rectum.
list_point Detection of cancerous and benign tumors, e.g. tumors of the prostate gland, and breast lesions.
list_point Pictures of blood flow in various organs or a fetus.
Fusion 3D imaging methods for generating compound images from two sets of ultrasound images (B-mode and Doppler images) enable the observation of the structural relationships between lesions and their associated blood vessels in three dimensions (maximum intensity projection).
Radiology-tip.comVirtual Colonoscopy
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Radiology-tip.comVolumetric Imaging
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• View the news results for '3D Ultrasound' (2).



 Further Reading:
  Basics:
Medical Physics: Ultrasound - extended reading exerciseOpen this link in a new window
   by www.cyberphysics.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk    
  News & More:
Ultrasound: Weighing the Propaganda Against the FactsOpen this link in a new window
   by www.midwiferytoday.com    
New technology makes 3-D imaging quicker, easierOpen this link in a new window
Sunday, 17 February 2008   by www.eurekalert.org    
US Resources  
Veterinary UltraSound - Abdominal - Research Labs - Prenatal - Journals - Calculation
 
4D UltrasoundInfoSheet: - Modes - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:<br> - Modes -
 
As far as ultrasound is concerned, 4D ultrasound (also referred to as live 3D ultrasound or 4B-mode) is the latest ultrasound technology - the fourth dimension means length, width, and depth over time. 4D Ultrasound takes 3D ultrasound images and adds the element of time to the progress so that a moving three-dimensional image is seen on the monitor. A 4D scan takes the same amounts of time as a 2D or 3D scan; the difference is the ultrasound equipment being used. One advantage of a 4D fetal ultrasound to a 2D-mode is that parents can see how their baby will generally look like. However, there are different opinions over the medical advantages.
To scan a 3D ultrasound image, the probe is swept over the maternal abdomen. A computer takes multiple images and renders the 3D picture. With 4D imaging, the computer takes the images as multiple pictures while the probe is hold still and a 3D image is simultaneously rendered in real time on a monitor.
In most cases, the standard 2D ultrasound is taken, and then the 3D/4D scan capability is added if an abnormality is detected or suspected. The 3D/4D sonogram is then focused on a specific area, to provide the details needed to assess and diagnose a suspected problem. A quick 4D scan of the face of the fetus may be performed at the end of a routine exam, providing the parents with a photo.
Radiology-tip.comFluoroscopy
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Radiology-tip.comTemporal Resolution
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• View the news results for '4D Ultrasound' (5).



 Further Reading:
  Basics:
Impulse Imaging 4D Imaging : 4D Ultrasound, 4D Radar, 4D Sonar, ... Real Time 3D Imaging using Ellipsoidal BackprojectionOpen this link in a new window
2001   by www.impulseimaging.net    
  News & More:
Ultrasound: Weighing the Propaganda Against the FactsOpen this link in a new window
   by www.midwiferytoday.com    
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A-ModeInfoSheet: - Modes - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:<br> - Modes -
 
A-mode (Amplitude-mode) ultrasound is used to judge the depth of an organ, or otherwise assess an organ's dimensions. A-mode technology has been used in midline echoencephalography for rapid screening of intracranial mass lesions and ophthalmologic scanning. A-mode ultrasound imaging is now obsolete in medical imaging. The A-mode scan had also been used for early pregnancy assessment (detection of fetal heart beat), cephalometry and placental localization.
When the ultrasound beam encounters an anatomic boundary, the received sound impulse is processed to appear as a vertical reflection of a point. On the display, it looks like spikes of different heights (the amplitude). The intensity of the returning impulse determined the height of the vertical reflection and the time it took for the impulse to make the round trip would determine the space between verticals. The distance between these spikes can be measured accurately by dividing the speed of sound in tissue (1540 m/sec) by half the sound travel time.
To make an echoencephalography scan, the first A-mode scan is obtained from the right side of the head and the image captured on film. Then the probe is placed at the corresponding point on the left side. The second exposure is made on the same film with inverted spikes. The A-mode ultrasound could be used to identify structures normally located in the midline of the brain such as the third ventricle and falx cerebri. The midline structures would be aligned in normal patients but show displacement in patients with mass lesion such as a subdural, epidural, or intracranial hemorrhage.
See also Ultrasound Biomicroscopy, A-scan, B-mode and the Infosheet about ultrasound modes.
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• View the news results for 'A-Mode' (1).



 Further Reading:
  Basics:
A-Mode EchoencephalographyOpen this link in a new window
   by www.obgyn.net    
A-Mode Area RatioOpen this link in a new window
   by www.wildultrasound.com    
  News & More:
Module 1: Basic A-scan Biometry Section 1: Basic ConceptsOpen this link in a new window
   by www.eyetec.net    
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Acoustic LensMRI Resource Directory:<br> - UltraSound Physics -
 
The acoustic lens is placed at the time the transducer is manufactured and cannot be changed. The acoustic lens is generally focused in the mid field rather than the near or far fields. The exact focal length varies with transducer frequency, but is generally in the range of 4-6 cm for a 5 MHz curved linear probe and 7-9 cm for a 3.5 MHz curved transducer.
Placing the elevation plane (z-plane) focal zone of the acoustic lens in the very near or far field would improve the beam width at precisely those depths. However, this would degrade the beam width to a much greater and unacceptable degree at all other depths.
There are some chemicals in ultrasound couplants that can degrade the acoustic lens, destroy bonding, or change the acoustic properties of the lens. Problematic chemicals include mineral oil, silicone oil, alcohol, surfactants, and fragrances. Fragrance can affect the transducer's acoustic lens or face material by absorption over time into elastomer and plastic materials, thus changing the material's weight, size, density, and acoustic impedance. Surfactants can degrade the bond between the lens and the piezoelectric elements and contribute to the accelerated degeneration of the lens.
See also Retrolenticular Afterglow.
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 Further Reading:
  Basics:
INTRODUCTIONOpen this link in a new window
   by www.fink.com    
  News & More:
Sound-field modification with acoustic lenses for high-intensity focused ultrasound therapyOpen this link in a new window
   by www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov    
US Resources  
Education - Quality Advice - Portals - Vaginal - PACS - Corporations
 
Related Searches:
 • Biplane Probe
 • Array Transducer
 • Transducer Pulse Control
 • History of Ultrasound Contrast Agents
 • Tri-Frequency Probe
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