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Pulse Inversion ImagingInfoSheet: - Modes - 
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etc.MRI Resource Directory:<br> - Modes -
 
(PII) Pulse inversion imaging (also called phase inversion imaging) is a non-linear imaging method specifically made for enhanced detection of microbubble ultrasound contrast agents. In PII, two pulses are sent in rapid succession into the tissue; the second pulse is a mirror image of the first. The resulting echoes are added at reception. Linear scattering of the two pulses will give two echoes which are inverted copies of each other, and these echoes will therefore cancel out when added.
Linear scattering dominates in tissues. Echoes from linear scatterers such as tissue cancel, whereas those from gas microbubbles do not. Non-linear scattering of the two pulses will give two echoes which do not cancel out completely due to different bubble response to positive and negative pressures of equal magnitude. The harmonic components add, and the signal intensity difference between non-linear and linear scatterers is therefore increased. The resulting images show high sensitivity to bubbles at the resolution of a conventional image.
In harmonic imaging, the frequency range of the transmitted pulse and the received signal should not overlap, but this restriction is less in pulse inversion imaging since the transmit frequencies are not filtered out, but rather subtracted. Broader transmit and receive bandwidths are therefore allowed, giving shorter pulses and improved axial resolution, hence the alternative term wideband harmonic imaging. Many ultrasound machines offer some form of pulse inversion imaging.
See also Pulse Inversion Doppler, Narrow Bandwidth, Dead Zone, Ultrasound Phantom.
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Tissue Harmonic ImagingInfoSheet: - Modes - 
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(THI) Tissue harmonic imaging (also called native harmonic imaging) is a signal processing technique which addresses ultrasound limitations like penetration and resolution. Tissue harmonic imaging reduces noise and clutter by improving signal to noise ratio and resolution. The signal penetration in soft tissue increases as the transmit frequency is decreased, by simultaneous decreased image resolution. As an ultrasound wave propagates through the target media a change occurs in the shape and frequency of the transmitted signal. The change is due to the normal resistance of tissue to propagate sound energy. This resistance and the resulting signal change is called a harmonic oscillation.
For harmonic imaging the input frequency doubles the output frequency, for example a transmit frequency of 3.0 MHz. which would provide maximum penetration will return a harmonic frequency of 6.0 MHz. The returning higher frequency signal has to only travel one direction to the probe. The advantages of high frequency imaging and the one-way travel effect are decreased reverberation, beam aberration, and side lobes, as well as increased resolution and cystic clearing.
Radiology-tip.comResonance Frequency,  Sensitivity Encoding
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Harmonic ImagingOpen this link in a new window
   by www.imasonic.com    
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Ultrasound Imaging ModesInfoSheet: - Modes - 
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Ultrasound imaging is excellent for diagnosing cysts and other fluids in soft tissue. For ultrasound imaging or ultrasonography, different modes are used to examine the arterial/venous system, heart, pancreas, urinary system, ovaries, spinal cord, joints and more.
Power levels, frequencies used, amplification, and beamforming determine the clarity of the image. These things are controlled by the sonographer, interacting with the properties of the ultrasound machine.

Various imaging modes:
point A-mode;
point B-mode;
point QB-mode;
point M-mode;
point real-time mode;
point pulsed wave Doppler;
point continuous wave Doppler;
point color Doppler;
point color power Doppler;
point duplex.
Radiology-tip.comPulse Sequence
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Module 1: Basic A-scan Biometry Section 1: Basic ConceptsOpen this link in a new window
   by www.eyetec.net    
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Coherent Contrast ImagingInfoSheet: - Modes - 
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(CCI) A major limitation of the use of ultrasound contrast agents is the problem that signals from the microbubbles are mixed with those from tissue, so that the distribution of the microbubbles is not optimally displayed either in Doppler or gray scale.
Coherent contrast imaging is a high frame rate implementation of inverting the phase of alternate sound pulses and summing the resulting echoes. The symmetrical signals from linear reflectors are cancelled leaving those from non-linear scatterers, with the advantage that the cancellation is performed without the need to transmit two pulses per image line so that bubble destruction is minimized. Coherent contrast imaging yields best results in the vascular phase of phospholipid microbubbles (such as Definity and SonoVue).
See also Coherence.
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Contrast Harmonic ImagingInfoSheet: - Modes - 
Intro, 
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(CHI) Contrast harmonic imaging is an ultrasound technique to improve the measurement of blood perfusion or capillary blood flow. Based on the nonlinear properties of contrast agents, CHI transmits at the fundamental frequency but receives at the second harmonic. Contrast enhanced echo signals contain significant energy components at higher harmonics (bubbles acts as harmonic oscillators), while tissue echoes do not. Caused by that contrast signal can be separated from tissue echoes by the characteristic signal.
In combination with the pulse inversion technique, CHI promises very high contrast agent sensitivity with high spatial resolution.
See also Ultrasound Contrast Agent Safety and Hemoglobin.
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 Further Reading:
  Basics:
Harmonic Imaging of the Human Brain : Visualization of Brain Perfusion With Ultrasound(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
   by stroke.ahajournals.org    
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