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 'Ultrasound Echo' 
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Ultrasound EchoMRI Resource Directory:<br> - UltraSound Physics -
 
An echo is defined as the repetition of a sound by reflection of sound waves from a surface.
Echo types used in ultrasound imaging:
Specular echoes are created from relatively large, regularly shaped objects with smooth surfaces. Specular echoes are relatively intense and angle dependent.
Scattered echoes are created from relatively small, weakly reflective, irregularly shaped objects. Scattered echoes are less angle dependant and less intense.
See also Specular Echo, and Scattered Echo.
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ACUSON Aspen™ GIInfoSheet: - Devices -
Intro, 
TypesMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Devices Machines Scanners Systems -
 
www.medical.siemens.com/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/ProductDisplay?storeId=10001&langId=-11&catalogId=-11&catTree=100001%2C12805%2C12761&level=0&productId=17969

From Siemens Medical Systems;
The ACUSON Aspen&trade; ultrasound system resulted from a unique convergence of select ACUSON Sequoia&trade; ultrasound system technologies and other ACUSON innovations to form an entirely new imaging platform. Its new digital system architecture provides complete digital control of the ultrasound echoes from the transducer through the captured digital examination.

Specifications for this system will be available soon.

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Product Information ACUSON Aspen GI(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
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CorrelationMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Calculation -
 
Correlation is a mathematical procedure, used in ultrasound to quantify the similarity between two signals. Cross correlation of successive ultrasound echoes can be used to quantify movement of tissue, including blood.
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Intravascular UltrasoundMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Intravascular -
 
(IVUS) For intravascular ultrasound a small IVUS catheter with a probe is introduced into the artery. The transducer transmits and receives acoustic energy through this catheter. The reflected acoustic energy is used to build a picture of the inside of the vessel. A IVUS image consists of three layers around the lumen, the intima, media and adventitia.
In addition, elastography or palpography could be used to evaluate the local mechanical properties of tissues (e.g. lipid pools in high-risk vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques). These techniques use the deformation caused by the intraluminal pressure generated by the probe.
A high strain region at the lumen vessel wall boundary has 88% sensitivity and 89% specificity for identifying vulnerable plaques. There are high strain values of 1% in soft plaques with increased strain up to 2% at the shoulders of the plaque, while calcified material shows low strain values (0-0.2%). The radial strain in the tissue is obtained by cross-correlation techniques on the radio frequency signal. The strain is color-coded and plotted as a complimentary image to the intravascular ultrasound echogram.
See also Interventional Ultrasound, Vascular Ultrasound.
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 Further Reading:
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Intravascular Ultrasound (IVUS)Open this link in a new window
   by www.ptca.org    
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Biplane Color Flow Duplex Intravenous Intravascular Ultrasound for Arterial VisualizationOpen this link in a new window
2004   by enth.allenpress.com    
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History of UltrasoundMRI Resource Directory:<br> - History of UltraSound -
 
point In 1880 the Curie brothers discovered the piezoelectric effect in quartz. Converse piezoelectricity was mathematically deduced from fundamental thermodynamic principles by Lippmann in 1881.
point In 1917, Paul Langevin (France) and his coworkers developed an underwater sonar system (called hydrophone) that uses the piezoelectric effect to detect submarines through echo location.
point In 1935, the first RADAR system was produced by the British physicist Robert Watson-Wat. Also about 1935, developments began with the objective to use ultrasonic power therapeutically, utilizing its heating and disruptive effects on living tissues. In 1936, Siemens markets the first ultrasonic therapeutic machine, the Sonostat.
point Shortly after the World War II, researchers began to explore medical diagnostic capabilities of ultrasound. Karl Theo Dussik (Austria) attempted to locate the cerebral ventricles by measuring the transmission of ultrasound beam through the skull. Other researchers try to use ultrasound to detect gallstones, breast masses, and tumors. These first investigations were performed with A-mode.
point Shortly after the World War II, researchers in Europe, the United States and Japan began to explore medical diagnostic capabilities of ultrasound. Karl Theo Dussik (Austria) attempted to locate the cerebral ventricles by measuring the transmission of ultrasound beam through the skull. Other researchers, e.g. George Ludwig (United States) tried to use ultrasound to detect gallstones, breast masses, and tumors. This first experimentally investigations were performed with A-mode. Ultrasound pioneers contributed innovations and important discoveries, for example the velocity of sound transmission in animal soft tissues with a mean value of 1540 m/sec (still in use today), and determined values of the optimal scanning frequency of the ultrasound transducer.
point In the early 50`s the first B-mode images were obtained. Images were static, without gray-scale information in simple black and white and compound technique. Carl Hellmuth Hertz and Inge Edler (Sweden) made in 1953 the first scan of heart activity. Ian Donald and Colleagues (Scotland) were specialized on obstetric and gynecologic ultrasound research. By continuous development it was possible to study pregnancy and diagnose possible complications.
point After about 1960 two-dimensional compound procedures were developed. The applications in obstetric and gynecologic ultrasound boomed worldwide from the mid 60’s with both, A-scan and B-scan equipment. In the late 60’s B-mode ultrasonography replaced A-mode in wide parts.
point In the 70’s gray scale imaging became available and with progress of computer technique ultrasonic imaging gets better and faster.
point After continuous work, in the 80’s fast realtime B-mode gray-scale imaging was developed. Electronic focusing and duplex flow measurements became popular. A wider range of applications were possible.
point In the 90’s, high resolution scanners with digital beamforming, high transducer frequencies, multi-channel focus and broad-band transducer technology became state of the art. Optimized tissue contrast and improved diagnostic accuracy lead to an important role in breast imaging and cancer detection. Color Doppler and Duplex became available and sensitivity for low flow was continuously improved.
point Actually, machines with advanced ultrasound system performance are equipped with realtime compound imaging, tissue harmonic imaging, contrast harmonic imaging, vascular assessment, matrix array transducers, pulse inversion imaging, 3D and 4D ultrasound with panoramic view.
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 Further Reading:
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Physics Tutorial: Ultrasound PhysicsOpen this link in a new window
   by www.physics247.com    
A-Mode Area RatioOpen this link in a new window
   by www.wildultrasound.com    
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