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 'Ultrasound' 
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UltrasoundMRI Resource Directory:<br> - UltraSound Physics -
 
(US) Ultrasound is very high frequency sound above about 20,000 Hertz. Any frequency above the capabilities of the human ear is referred to as ultrasound.
Diagnostic ultrasound imaging uses much higher frequencies, in the order of megahertz. The frequencies present in usual sonograms can be anywhere between 2 and 13 MHz. The sound beam produce a single focused arc-shaped sound wave from the sum of all the individual pulses emitted by the transducer.
See also Medical Imaging.
Radiology-tip.comGamma Ray
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• View the news results for 'Ultrasound' (211).


• Related Searches:
    • Ultrasonography
    • Ultrasound Imaging
    • History of Ultrasound
    • Ultrasound Regulations
    • Veterinary Ultrasound

 Further Reading:
  Basics:
UltrasoundOpen this link in a new window
Thursday, 20 October 2005   by en.wikipedia.org    
An Introduction to UltrasoundOpen this link in a new window
   by www.cis.rit.edu    
  News & More:
Transmission Line Matrix (TLM) modelling of medical ultrasound(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
   by www.era.lib.ed.ac.uk    
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3D UltrasoundInfoSheet: - Modes - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:<br> - 3d UltraSound -
 
In 3D ultrasound (US) several 2D images are acquired by moving the probe across the body surface or rotating inserted probes. 3D-mode uses the same basic concept of a 2D ultrasound but rather than take the image from a single angle, the sonographer takes a volume image. The volume image that is displayed on the screen is a software rendering of all of the detected soft-tissue combined by specialized computer software to form three-dimensional images.
The 3D volume rendering technique (VR) does not rely on segmentation (segmentation techniques are difficult to apply to ultrasound pictures) and makes it possible to obtain clear 3D ultrasound images for clinical diagnosis. A 3D ultrasound produces a still image. Diagnostic US systems with 3D display functions and linear array probes are mainly used for obstetric and abdominal applications. The combination of contrast agents, harmonic imaging and power Doppler greatly improves 3D US reconstructions.

3D imaging shows a better look at the organ being examined and is used for:
list_point Detection of abnormal fetus development, e.g. of the face and limbs.
list_point Visualization of e.g. the colon and rectum.
list_point Detection of cancerous and benign tumors, e.g. tumors of the prostate gland, and breast lesions.
list_point Pictures of blood flow in various organs or a fetus.
Fusion 3D imaging methods for generating compound images from two sets of ultrasound images (B-mode and Doppler images) enable the observation of the structural relationships between lesions and their associated blood vessels in three dimensions (maximum intensity projection).
Radiology-tip.comVirtual Colonoscopy
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 Further Reading:
  Basics:
Medical Physics: Ultrasound - extended reading exerciseOpen this link in a new window
   by www.cyberphysics.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk    
  News & More:
Ultrasound: Weighing the Propaganda Against the FactsOpen this link in a new window
   by www.midwiferytoday.com    
New technology makes 3-D imaging quicker, easierOpen this link in a new window
Sunday, 17 February 2008   by www.eurekalert.org    
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4D UltrasoundInfoSheet: - Modes - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:<br> - Modes -
 
As far as ultrasound is concerned, 4D ultrasound (also referred to as live 3D ultrasound or 4B-mode) is the latest ultrasound technology - the fourth dimension means length, width, and depth over time. 4D Ultrasound takes 3D ultrasound images and adds the element of time to the progress so that a moving three-dimensional image is seen on the monitor. A 4D scan takes the same amounts of time as a 2D or 3D scan; the difference is the ultrasound equipment being used. One advantage of a 4D fetal ultrasound to a 2D-mode is that parents can see how their baby will generally look like. However, there are different opinions over the medical advantages.
To scan a 3D ultrasound image, the probe is swept over the maternal abdomen. A computer takes multiple images and renders the 3D picture. With 4D imaging, the computer takes the images as multiple pictures while the probe is hold still and a 3D image is simultaneously rendered in real time on a monitor.
In most cases, the standard 2D ultrasound is taken, and then the 3D/4D scan capability is added if an abnormality is detected or suspected. The 3D/4D sonogram is then focused on a specific area, to provide the details needed to assess and diagnose a suspected problem. A quick 4D scan of the face of the fetus may be performed at the end of a routine exam, providing the parents with a photo.
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 Further Reading:
  Basics:
Impulse Imaging 4D Imaging : 4D Ultrasound, 4D Radar, 4D Sonar, ... Real Time 3D Imaging using Ellipsoidal BackprojectionOpen this link in a new window
2001   by www.impulseimaging.net    
  News & More:
Ultrasound: Weighing the Propaganda Against the FactsOpen this link in a new window
   by www.midwiferytoday.com    
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Ultrasound GelMRI Resource Directory:<br> - UltraSound Physics -
 
An ultrasound (US) scanning gel has the same conductivity as the human body and is applied between the transducer and the skin surface. Air is a bad conductor of US, so this acoustic gel is used to conducts the sound beam and allows the ultrasound probe to pass smoothly over the skin.
The gel will be removed after the examination, and it will not stain skin or clothing. The basic dermatological requirement of a scanning gel is that it be free of skin irritants or sensitizers. In addition, effective preservatives with low incidence of skin reaction are required to prevent microbiological degradation of the gel. The broad range of patients imaged with ultrasound, from pregnant women and infants to the infirm or elderly dictates that the risk of skin reaction must be minimized.
The effect of small bubbles in the ultrasound couplant under the transducer is to disperse the ultrasound which results in clouding of the image. This effect is most clearly seen on anechoic regions of the image which becomes cloudy. Air bubbles, regardless of their size, degrade the performance of ultrasound in all medical applications including imaging, Lithotripsy and physical therapy.
There are some chemicals, including mineral oil, silicone oil, alcohol, surfactants, and fragrances that can degrade the acoustic lens, destroy bonding, or change the acoustic properties of the lens. The use of scanning gels or lotions in diagnostic ultrasound containing these chemicals should be avoided. In therapeutic ultrasound, ultrasound transmission gels and lotions commonly contain oils and other chemicals not intended for use with diagnostic imaging transducers.
See also Ultrasound Therapy and Ultrasound Physics.
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 Further Reading:
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Sonography Transmission Gel as Endorectal Contrast Agent for Tumor Visualization in Rectal CancerOpen this link in a new window
Monday, 14 January 2008   by www.ajronline.org    
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Ultrasound EchoMRI Resource Directory:<br> - UltraSound Physics -
 
An echo is defined as the repetition of a sound by reflection of sound waves from a surface.
Echo types used in ultrasound imaging:
Specular echoes are created from relatively large, regularly shaped objects with smooth surfaces. Specular echoes are relatively intense and angle dependent.
Scattered echoes are created from relatively small, weakly reflective, irregularly shaped objects. Scattered echoes are less angle dependant and less intense.
See also Specular Echo, and Scattered Echo.
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 • Ultrasound Regulations
 • 4D Ultrasound
 • Fetal Ultrasound
 • History of Ultrasound
 • Ultrasound Imaging
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