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 'Second Generation USCA' 
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Result : Searchterm 'Second Generation USCA' found in 1 term [] and 4 definitions [])
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Second Generation USCAInfoSheet: - Contrast Agents - 
Intro, 
Historical Development, 
Microbubbles,
etc.MRI Resource Directory:<br> - Contrast Agents -
 
The second generation ultrasound contrast agents (UCA/USCA) are both sufficiently small and stable to pass into the systemic circulation, and these contrast media enhance the Doppler signal in various arteries after intravenous injection. Second generation agents have a short live, the contrast effect is over in a few minutes.
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    • First generation USCA
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    • History of Ultrasound Contrast Agents
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History of Ultrasound Contrast AgentsInfoSheet: - Contrast Agents - 
Intro, 
Historical Development, 
Microbubbles,
etc.MRI Resource Directory:<br> - History of UltraSound -
 
The earliest introduction of vascular ultrasound contrast agents (USCA) was by Gramiak and Shah in 1968, when they injected agitated saline into the ascending aorta and cardiac chambers during echocardiographic to opacify the left heart chamber. Strong echoes were produced within the heart, due to the acoustic mismatch between free air microbubbles in the saline and the surrounding blood.
The disadvantage of this microbubbles produced by agitation, was that the air quickly leak from the thin bubble shell into the blood, where it dissolved. In addition, the small bubbles that were capable of traversing the capillary bed did not survive long enough for imaging because the air quickly dissipated into the blood. Aside from agitated saline, also hydrogen peroxide, indocyanine green dye, and iodinated contrast has been tested. The commercial development of contrast agents began in the 1980s with greatest effort to the stabilization of small microbubbles.

The development generations by now:
point first generation USCA = non-transpulmonary vascular;;
point second generation USCA = transpulmonary vascular, with short half-life (less than 5 min);
point third generation USCA = transpulmonary vascular, with longer half-life (greater than 5 min).

To pass through the lung capillaries and enter into the systemic circulation, microspheres should be less than 10 µm in diameter. Air bubbles in that size range persist in solution for only a short time; too short for systemic vascular use.
The first developed agent was Echovist (1982), which enabled the enhancement of the right heart. The second generation of echogenic agents, sonicated 5% human albumin-containing air bubbles (Albunex), were capable of transpulmonary passage but often failed to produce adequate imaging of the left heart. Both Albunex and Levovist utilize air as the gas component of the microbubble.
In the 1990s newer developed agents with fluorocarbon gases and albumin, surfactant, lipid, or polymer shells have an increased persistence of the microspheres. This smaller, more stable microbubble agents, and improvements in ultrasound technology, have resulted in a wider range of application including myocardial perfusion.
See also First Generation USCA, Second Generation USCA, and Third Generation USCA.
Radiology-tip.comSafety of Contrast Agents
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 Further Reading:
  Basics:
The First Long-Lasting Use of Echocardiography: A Result of a False AdvertisementOpen this link in a new window
2008   by imaging.onlinejacc.org    
  News & More:
The clinical applications of contrast echocardiography(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
2000   by cme.medscape.com     
US Resources  
Education pool - Databases - Research Labs - Safety - UltraSound Technician and Technologist Jobs - Non-English
 
Optison™InfoSheet: - Contrast Agents - 
Intro, 
Historical Development, 
Microbubbles,
etc.MRI Resource Directory:<br> - Contrast Agents -
 
From GE Healthcare;;
Optison is the first 'second generation USCA' marketed in the US.
Ultrasound contrast agents used during an ultrasound imaging procedure, enable more accurate diagnosis of the patient's heart condition. The application of Optison allows to image the endocardial borders of the heart, to see cardiac wall motion abnormalities and to guide the selection and monitoring of treatment.
Optison represents a class of microbubbles with a shell formed by sonicating a solution of capsules filled with a perfluoropropane gas. The high molecular weight slows microbubble dissolution and prolongs the enhancement for several minutes. The human albumin-stabilized cavitation bubbles have a surface tension of 0.9 N/m and a surface dilatational viscosity 0.08 msP.

"August 06, 2001 Molecular Biosystems Inc., a subsidiary of Alliance Pharmaceutical Corp, announced the amendment of the Optison Product Rights Agreement (OPRA) dated May 9, 2000 with Mallinckrodt Inc, a unit of Tyco Healthcare. Optison, an intravenous ultrasound contrast agent, was developed by MBI and is being marketed by Mallinckrodt in the U.S. and Europe. Under the amended agreement, MBI will receive an immediate cash payment plus additional unspecified royalties for a two-year period. The amendment of OPRA coincides with an announcement by Nycomed Amersham Imaging that Nycomed and Mallinckrodt will terminate their joint commercialization and development agreement for ultrasound contrast agents, including Optison, effective Dec. 31, 2001. Effective Jan. 1, 2002, all selling and marketing activities will be resumed solely by Nycomed Amersham." (by EDGAR Online)

Drug Information and Specification:
RESEARCH NAME FS069
DEVELOPER Molecular Biosystems Inc.
INDICATION -
DEVELOPMENT STAGE
LVO -
For sale
APPLICATION intravenous/oral
TYPE microbubbles
SHELL Albumin N-acetyltryptophan, Caprylic acid
CHARGE Slight Negative
GAS Octafluoropropane
MICROBUBBLE SIZE 93% < 10µm
PRESENTATION Five 3 ml vials
STORAGE Refrigerate 2–8°C
PREPARATION Hand agitate
DO NOT RELY ON THE INFORMATION PROVIDED HERE, THEY ARE NOT A SUBSTITUTE FOR THE ACCOMPANYING PACKAGE INSERT!

Distribution Information:
TERRITORY DISTRIBUTOR
USA, EU GE Healthcare

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 Further Reading:
  Basics:
Optison? Prescribing Information(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
  News & More:
CONTRAST ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY: NEW AGENTSOpen this link in a new window
   by eurheartj.oxfordjournals.org    
molecular imaging using ultrasoundOpen this link in a new window
   by bjr.birjournals.org    
American Society of Echocardiography Consensus Statement on the Clinical Applications of Ultrasonic Contrast Agents in EchocardiographyOpen this link in a new window
November 2008   by www.asecho.org    
Nycomed Amersham and Mallinckrodt Agree on Ultrasound Patent Settlement and Announce Joint Development of Existing Ultrasound ProductsOpen this link in a new window
   by www.prnewswire.com    
US Resources  
Service and Repair - Image Quality - - Vaginal - Musculoskeletal and Joint - Societies
 
SonoGenInfoSheet: - Contrast Agents - 
Intro, 
Historical Development, 
Microbubbles,
etc.MRI Resource Directory:<br> - Contrast Agents -
 
SonoGen (QW7437) is an anionically charged 2% perfluorocarbon emulsion under development as a transpulmonary myocardial ultrasound contrast agent (UCA). The SonoGen microbubbles have a reduced adherence to the negatively charged vascular endothelium and reduced coalescence. SonoGen, a second generation USCA has the theoretical potential to provide high safety and efficacy and improved tissue grayscale persistence compared to first generation fluorocarbon contrast agents.

Drug Information and Specification:
RESEARCH NAME QW7437
DEVELOPER Sonus Pharmaceuticals
INDICATION -
DEVELOPMENT STAGE
Echocardiography - Phase 1
APPLICATION Intravenous injection
TYPE Microbubble
SHELL Surfactant
CHARGE Negative
GAS Dodecafluoropentane
MICROBUBBLE SIZE -
PREPARATION -
DO NOT RELY ON THE INFORMATION PROVIDED HERE, THEY ARE NOT A SUBSTITUTE FOR THE ACCOMPANYING PACKAGE INSERT!

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 Further Reading:
  Basics:
Phase 3 Investigator Results Show EchoGen(R) Benefits Detection of Myocardial Perfusion DefectsOpen this link in a new window
US Resources  
Image Libraries - - Gall Bladder - Safety - Pelvic - Supplies and Accessories
 
SonoVue®InfoSheet: - Contrast Agents - 
Intro, 
Historical Development, 
Microbubbles,
etc.MRI Resource Directory:<br> - Contrast Agents -
 
www.bracco.com/Bracco/Internet/Imaging/Ultrasound/

From Bracco Diagnostics, Inc.
SonoVue® was first launched in October 2001 and is now available in all European countries.
SonoVue is a second generation USCA, designed and optimized with regard to the resistance to pressure. SonoVue is an example of an important family of microbubbles whose membrane consists of phospholipids. SonoVue microbubbles are filled with sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), a gas which has a low solubility and diffuses slowly in blood for the gaseous phase of the microbubbles.
In particular, the SonoVue microbubbles, thanks to the high flexibility of their shell, are strongly echogenic in a wide range of frequencies and acoustic pressure and therefore can be used with both destructive and conservative contrast bubble specific imaging methods.
See also Coherent Contrast Imaging.

Drug Information and Specification:
RESEARCH NAME BR1
DEVELOPER Bracco
INDICATION -
DEVELOPMENT STAGE
Contrast enhanced ultrasound -
for sale
APPLICATION Intravenous
TYPE Microbubble
SHELL Lipids: Macrogol 4000, DSPC, DPPG, Palmitic acid
CHARGE Negative
GAS Sulfurhexafluoride
MICROBUBBLE SIZE 99% &lt; 11µm
PRESENTATION Presentation 01(with integral Bio-Set transfer system) - 25 mg of dry, lyophilized powder in an atmosphere of sulphur hexafluoride in a colorless Type I glass vial, with elastomeric closure and integral transfer system. Type I glass pre-filled syringe containing 5 ml sodium chloride 0.9%w/v solution for injection. - Presentation 02 (with separate MiniSpike transfer system)
STORAGE No special precautions for storage
PREPARATION Reconstitute with 5 ml saline
DO NOT RELY ON THE INFORMATION PROVIDED HERE, THEY ARE NOT A SUBSTITUTE FOR THE ACCOMPANYING PACKAGE INSERT!

Distribution Information:
TERRITORY DISTRIBUTOR
USA, EU Bracco

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 Further Reading:
  News & More:
Diagnostic efficacy of SonoVue®, a second generation contrast agent, in the assessment of extracranial carotid or peripheral arteries using colour and spectral Doppler ultrasound: a multicentre studyOpen this link in a new window
2006   by www.bracco.com    
EMEA - PUBLIC STATEMENT ON SONOVUE (SULPHUR HEXAFLUORIDE) New contraindication in patients with heart disease. Restriction of use to non-cardiac imaging(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
Wednesday, 19 May 2004   by www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov    
US Resources  
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Related Searches:
 • First generation USCA
 • Third Generation USCA
 • History of Ultrasound Contrast Agents
 • Ultraharmonic Imaging
 • QW7437
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