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Real-Time ScannerInfoSheet: - Devices -
Intro, 
TypesMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Devices Machines Scanners Systems -
 
Most usual ultrasound machines are 2D real-time systems. This types of ultrasound scanners allow to assess both motion and anatomy, including the motion of heart valves, the movement of intestines and lungs and also to guide interventions, like for example a biopsy or a laparoscopic ultrasound.
A standard real-time scanner consists of a mobile console with the monitor on the top and rows of small containers at the bottom to accommodate a variety of scanner probes. The linear, curved or phased array transducers are usually equipped with multiple crystals or in some cases with a moving crystal. A real-time scanner may be e.g., a mechanical scanner or electronic array scanner.
See also Musculoskeletal and Joint Ultrasound.
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 Further Reading:
  News & More:
Bedside Limited Echocardiography by the Emergency Physician Is Accurate During Evaluation of the Critically Ill PatientOpen this link in a new window
2004   by www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov    
Metastatic bladder carcinoma to liver biopsy, proven with ultrasound guidanceOpen this link in a new window
   by rad.usuhs.mil    
US Resources  
Equipment and Parts - RIS - Renal - Doppler UltraSound - Artifacts - Endoscopic
 
2D-ModeInfoSheet: - Modes - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:<br> - Modes -
 
The 2D-mode (2-Dimensional-mode) is a spatially oriented B-mode (brightness) ultrasound. The imaged structures are displayed 2 dimensional as a function of depth and width. The brightness level is based on the echo signal amplitude.
Most of the ultrasound devices in medical imaging are 2D real-time scanner. The image is created by a rapidly back and forth swept sound beam over the region of interest.
See also Gray Scale.
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 Further Reading:
  Basics:
Basic ultrasound for cliniciansOpen this link in a new window
March 2006   by folk.ntnu.no    
  News & More:
Transmission Line Matrix (TLM) modelling of medical ultrasound(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
   by www.era.lib.ed.ac.uk    
US Resources  
Developers - Image Libraries - Ultrasound Gel - Probes Transducers - Education pool - 3d UltraSound
 
B-ModeInfoSheet: - Modes - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:<br> - Modes -
 
Also called B-mode echography, B-mode sonography, 2D-mode, and sonogram.
B-mode ultrasound (Brightness-mode) is the display of a 2D-map of B-mode data, currently the most common form of ultrasound imaging.
The development from A-mode to B-mode is that the ultrasound signal is used to produce various points whose brightness depends on the amplitude instead of the spiking vertical movements in the A-mode. Sweeping a narrow ultrasound beam through the area being examined while transmitting pulses and detecting echoes along closely spaced scan lines produces B-scan images. The vertical position of each bright dot is determined by the time delay from pulse transmission to return of the echo, and the horizontal position by the location of the receiving transducer element.
To generate a rapid series of individual 2D images that show motion, the ultrasound beam is swept repeatedly. The returning sound pulses in B-mode have different shades of darkness depending on their intensities. The varying shades of gray reflect variations in the texture of internal organs. This form of display (solid areas appear white and fluid areas appear black) is also called gray scale.

Different types of displayed B-mode images are:
point two-dimensional, 2D-mode;
point gray scale;
point real-time mode;
point compound B-mode.

The probe movement can be performed manual (compound and static B-scanner) or automatic (real-time scanner).
The image reconstruction can be parallel or sector type.
See also B-Scan, 4B-Mode, and Harmonic B-Mode Imaging.
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 Further Reading:
  Basics:
Medical Physics: Ultrasound - extended reading exerciseOpen this link in a new window
   by www.cyberphysics.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk    
  News & More:
Ultrasound anatomy of the neckOpen this link in a new window
   by rad.usuhs.mil    
US Resources  
Online Books - Jobs - Prenatal - Devices Machines Scanners Systems - Image Libraries - Ultrasound Gel
 
Musculoskeletal and Joint UltrasoundMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Musculoskeletal and Joint -
 
Ultrasound is an ideal tool to examine the joints and surrounding soft tissues like tendons, ligaments and joint linings. Musculoskeletal and joint sonography is sensitive, without radiation exposure, easy accessible, quick, and has high patient tolerability with relatively low cost.
A real-time scanner allow the dynamic assessment of the musculoskeletal system and a specific examination for each patient. In addition, joint aspiration and injection accuracy can be improved. Probes with high frequency improve the image resolution and allow visualization of fine anatomic structures of the small parts. As musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) is very operator dependent, experience and training is required. Ultrasound is also often used in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders.
See also Ultrasound Therapy, Real-Time Mode, Artifact and Ultrasound Biomicroscopy.
Radiology-tip.comArthrography
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Radiology-tip.comImaging of the Extremities
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 Further Reading:
  Basics:
Guidelines For Professional Working Standards Ultrasound PracticeOpen this link in a new window
   by www.bmus.org    
A brief history of musculoskeletal ultrasound: ?From bats and ships to babies and hips?Open this link in a new window
2004   by rheumatology.oxfordjournals.org    
  News & More:
Musculoskeletal Ultrasound Technical Guidelines IV.Hip(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
   by www.essr.org    
Musculoskeletal Ultrasound Technical Guidelines II. Elbow(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
   by www.essr.org    
US Resources  
Preferential Sites - Societies - Journals - UltraSound Technician and Technologist Jobs - Software - Ultrasound Therapy
 
Obstetric and Gynecologic UltrasoundMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Obstetric -
 
Obstetric and gynecologic [gynaecologic, Brit.] ultrasound is an essential tool to evaluate the fetus, uterus, ovaries and surrounding tissues. Pelvic ultrasound is performed routinely during pregnancy, examinations to determine the cause of infertility, pelvic pain or abnormal vaginal bleeding.
Women with uncomplicated pregnancies may be referred to ultrasound between the 16th and 20th week of pregnancy for routine assessment of gestational age, fetal size and growth with a real-time scanner. Many defects of the fetal anatomy can be identified using ultrasound examination during the mid-trimester of pregnancy.
For gynecological sonography, a transabdominal sonogram is performed with a full bladder. If the pelvic ultrasound shows any pathology, or does not provide a clear image of the organs, a transvaginal ultrasound is performed to better visualize the uterus and ovaries. In general, ultrasound can detect inflammation, free fluid, cysts, and tumors in the pelvic region.
See also Pregnancy Ultrasound, Pelvic Ultrasound, Hysterosalpingo Contrast Sonography and Vaginal Probe.
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• View the news results for 'Obstetric and Gynecologic Ultrasound' (1).



 Further Reading:
  Basics:
Pelvic ultrasoundOpen this link in a new window
   by www.surgeryencyclopedia.com    
EDUCATIONAL TUTORIALS: ULTRASOUND - IMAGING Open this link in a new window
   by www.obgyn.net    
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