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 'Pulse Inversion Imaging' 
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Pulse Inversion ImagingInfoSheet: - Modes - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:<br> - Modes -
 
(PII) Pulse inversion imaging (also called phase inversion imaging) is a non-linear imaging method specifically made for enhanced detection of microbubble ultrasound contrast agents. In PII, two pulses are sent in rapid succession into the tissue; the second pulse is a mirror image of the first. The resulting echoes are added at reception. Linear scattering of the two pulses will give two echoes which are inverted copies of each other, and these echoes will therefore cancel out when added.
Linear scattering dominates in tissues. Echoes from linear scatterers such as tissue cancel, whereas those from gas microbubbles do not. Non-linear scattering of the two pulses will give two echoes which do not cancel out completely due to different bubble response to positive and negative pressures of equal magnitude. The harmonic components add, and the signal intensity difference between non-linear and linear scatterers is therefore increased. The resulting images show high sensitivity to bubbles at the resolution of a conventional image.
In harmonic imaging, the frequency range of the transmitted pulse and the received signal should not overlap, but this restriction is less in pulse inversion imaging since the transmit frequencies are not filtered out, but rather subtracted. Broader transmit and receive bandwidths are therefore allowed, giving shorter pulses and improved axial resolution, hence the alternative term wideband harmonic imaging. Many ultrasound machines offer some form of pulse inversion imaging.
See also Pulse Inversion Doppler, Narrow Bandwidth, Dead Zone, Ultrasound Phantom.
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Bubble Specific ImagingInfoSheet: - Contrast Agents - 
Intro, 
Historical Development, 
Microbubbles,
etc.MRI Resource Directory:<br> - Contrast Agents -
 
Bubble specific imaging methods rely usually on non-linear imaging modes. These contrast imaging techniques are designed to suppress the echo from tissue in relation to that from a microbubble contrast agent.
Stimulated acoustic emission (SAE) and phase / pulse inversion imaging mode (PIM) are bubble specific modes, which can image the tissue specific phase.
In SAE mode bubble rupture is seen as a transient bright signal in B-mode and as a characteristic mosaic-like effect in velocity 2D color Doppler.
PIM are Doppler modes and detect non-linear echoes from microbubbles. In pulse inversion imaging modes the transducer bandwidth extends, resulting in improved spatial resolution and more contrast.
See also Contrast Pulse Sequencing, Microbubble Scanner Modification, Narrow Bandwidth, Contrast Medium, Dead Zone.
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 Further Reading:
  Basics:
Combination of contrast with stress echocardiography: A practical guide to methods and interpretationOpen this link in a new window
2004   by www.cardiovascularultrasound.com    
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RIS - Examinations - Gynecology - Veterinary UltraSound - Rental - UltraSound Technician and Technologist Schools
 
Hi Vision 8500 - EUB-8500InfoSheet: - Devices -
Intro, 
TypesMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Devices Machines Scanners Systems -
 
www.hitachimed.com/products/ultrasound/eub_8500.asp

From Hitachi Medical Corporation (HMC), sales, marketing and service in the US by Hitachi Medical Systems America Inc.;
Powerful, flexible, and fast, the HI VISION™ 8500 - EUB-8500 diagnostic ultrasound scanner combines leading edge technologies with user-oriented operation for exceptional imaging and functionality.
Available exclusively on the 8500, SonoElastography provides a new perspective on the physical properties of tumors and masses by determining and displaying the relative stiffness of tissue.


Device Information and Specification
APPLICATIONS Abdominal, brachytherapy/cryotherapy, breast, cardiac, dedicated biopsy, endoscopic, intraoperative, laparoscopic, musculoskeletal, OB/GYN, pediatric, small parts, urologic, vascular
CONFIGURATION Compact system
TRANSDUCERS Five frequency (except mini-probes), low impedance, wideband
RANGE OF PROBE TYPE Linear, convex, radial, biplane, phased array, echoendoscope longitudinal, echoendoscope radial
PROBE FREQUENCIES Linear: 5.0-13 MHz, convex: 2.5-7.5 MHz, phased: 2.0-7.5 MHz, sector: 2.0-7.5 MHz
IMAGING MODES 4 Modes of dynamic tissue harmonic imaging (dTHI), pulsed wave Doppler, continuous wave Doppler, color flow imaging, power Doppler, directional power Doppler, color flow angiography, real-time Doppler measurements, quantitative tissue Doppler
IMAGING OPTIONS HI COMPOUND imaging, HI RES adaptive imaging, wideband pulse inversion imaging (WPI), Raw Data Freeze
OPTIONAL PACKAGE 3D imaging, steerable CW Doppler, dynamic contrast harmonics imaging, stress echo, Pentax EUS and Fujinon Mini-probe, SonoElastography imaging option
IMAGING ENHANCEMENTS 3RD generation color artifact suppression
STORAGE, CONNECTIVITY, OS Patient and image database management system, HDD, FDD, MOD, CD-ROM, Network, DICOM 3.0, Windows XP
DATA PROCESSING Octal beam processing, 12 bit Gigasampling A/D for precise signal reproduction
H*W*D m (inch.) 1.50 * 0.56 * 1.02 (59 x 22 x 40)
WEIGHT 159 kg (351 lbs.)
POWER CONSUMPTION 1.5kVA
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 Further Reading:
  Basics:
HI VISION 8500 Image GalleryOpen this link in a new window
   by www.hitachimed.com    
HI VISION 8500 Features/Options Open this link in a new window
   by www.hitachimed.com    
  News & More:
Hitachi USA Delivers Major Upgrade to 8500 PlatformOpen this link in a new window
   by www.hitachimed.com    
US Resources  
Examinations - - Pregnancy - 4d UltraSound - Musculoskeletal and Joint - Journals
 
Hi Vision™ 6500 - EUB-6500InfoSheet: - Devices -
Intro, 
TypesMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Devices Machines Scanners Systems -
 
www.hitachimed.com/products/ultrasound/eub_6500.asp

From Hitachi Medical Corporation (HMC), sales, marketing and service in the US by Hitachi Medical Systems America Inc.;
The HI VISION™ 6500 - EUB-6500 high resolution digital ultrasound system offers advanced clinical imaging, enhanced operating efficiency, and remarkable clinical flexibility, all in robust and versatile configuration that simply represents a better clinical solution in a variety of real-world, real-work arenas.


Device Information and Specification
APPLICATIONS Abdominal, brachytherapy/cryotherapy, breast, cardiac, dedicated biopsy, endoscopic, intraoperative, laparoscopic, musculoskeletal, OB/GYN, pediatric, small parts, urologic, vascular
CONFIGURATION Compact system
TRANSDUCERS Five frequency (except mini-probes), low impedance, wideband
RANGE OF PROBE TYPE Linear, convex, radial, miniradial/miniprobe, biplane, phased array, echoendoscope longitudinal, echoendoscope radial
PROBE FREQUENCIES Linear: 5.0-13 MHz, convex: 2.5-7.5 MHz, phased: 2.0-7.5 MHz, sector: 2.0-7.5 MHz
IMAGING MODES Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), pulsed wave Doppler, continuous wave Doppler, color flow imaging, power Doppler, directional power Doppler, color flow angiography, real-time Doppler measurements, 4 modes of dynamic tissue harmonic imaging (dTHI), wideband pulse inversion imaging (WPI)
IMAGING OPTIONS 3RD generation color artifact suppression
OPTIONAL PACKAGE 3D ultrasound, dual omni-directional M-mode display, steerable CW Doppler, dynamic contrast harmonics imaging, stress echo, Pentax EUS and Fujinon Mini-probe
STORAGE, CONNECTIVITY, OS Patient and image database management system, HDD, FDD, MOD, CD-ROM, Network, DICOM 3.0, Windows XP
DATA PROCESSING 12 bit gigasampling A/D for precise signal reproduction, Quadra beam processing for fast frame rates
H*W*D m (inch.) 1.40 x 0.51 x 0.79 (55 x 20 x 31)
WEIGHT 130 kg (286 lbs.)
POWER CONSUMPTION 1.2kVA
ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION 4096 btu/hr heat output
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History of UltrasoundMRI Resource Directory:<br> - History of UltraSound -
 
point In 1880 the Curie brothers discovered the piezoelectric effect in quartz. Converse piezoelectricity was mathematically deduced from fundamental thermodynamic principles by Lippmann in 1881.
point In 1917, Paul Langevin (France) and his coworkers developed an underwater sonar system (called hydrophone) that uses the piezoelectric effect to detect submarines through echo location.
point In 1935, the first RADAR system was produced by the British physicist Robert Watson-Wat. Also about 1935, developments began with the objective to use ultrasonic power therapeutically, utilizing its heating and disruptive effects on living tissues. In 1936, Siemens markets the first ultrasonic therapeutic machine, the Sonostat.
point Shortly after the World War II, researchers began to explore medical diagnostic capabilities of ultrasound. Karl Theo Dussik (Austria) attempted to locate the cerebral ventricles by measuring the transmission of ultrasound beam through the skull. Other researchers try to use ultrasound to detect gallstones, breast masses, and tumors. These first investigations were performed with A-mode.
point Shortly after the World War II, researchers in Europe, the United States and Japan began to explore medical diagnostic capabilities of ultrasound. Karl Theo Dussik (Austria) attempted to locate the cerebral ventricles by measuring the transmission of ultrasound beam through the skull. Other researchers, e.g. George Ludwig (United States) tried to use ultrasound to detect gallstones, breast masses, and tumors. This first experimentally investigations were performed with A-mode. Ultrasound pioneers contributed innovations and important discoveries, for example the velocity of sound transmission in animal soft tissues with a mean value of 1540 m/sec (still in use today), and determined values of the optimal scanning frequency of the ultrasound transducer.
point In the early 50`s the first B-mode images were obtained. Images were static, without gray-scale information in simple black and white and compound technique. Carl Hellmuth Hertz and Inge Edler (Sweden) made in 1953 the first scan of heart activity. Ian Donald and Colleagues (Scotland) were specialized on obstetric and gynecologic ultrasound research. By continuous development it was possible to study pregnancy and diagnose possible complications.
point After about 1960 two-dimensional compound procedures were developed. The applications in obstetric and gynecologic ultrasound boomed worldwide from the mid 60’s with both, A-scan and B-scan equipment. In the late 60’s B-mode ultrasonography replaced A-mode in wide parts.
point In the 70’s gray scale imaging became available and with progress of computer technique ultrasonic imaging gets better and faster.
point After continuous work, in the 80’s fast realtime B-mode gray-scale imaging was developed. Electronic focusing and duplex flow measurements became popular. A wider range of applications were possible.
point In the 90’s, high resolution scanners with digital beamforming, high transducer frequencies, multi-channel focus and broad-band transducer technology became state of the art. Optimized tissue contrast and improved diagnostic accuracy lead to an important role in breast imaging and cancer detection. Color Doppler and Duplex became available and sensitivity for low flow was continuously improved.
point Actually, machines with advanced ultrasound system performance are equipped with realtime compound imaging, tissue harmonic imaging, contrast harmonic imaging, vascular assessment, matrix array transducers, pulse inversion imaging, 3D and 4D ultrasound with panoramic view.
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 Further Reading:
  News & More:
Physics Tutorial: Ultrasound PhysicsOpen this link in a new window
   by www.physics247.com    
A-Mode Area RatioOpen this link in a new window
   by www.wildultrasound.com    
US Resources  
Societies - Artifacts - Endoscopic - Probes Transducers - Education pool - Online Books
 
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 • Contrast Harmonic Imaging
 • Pulse Inversion Doppler
 • Pulsed Wave Doppler
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