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 'Power Modulation' 
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Power ModulationMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Modes -
 
Power modulation is a non-linear method, based on a multi-pulse technique where the acoustic amplitude (and hence power) of the transmitted pulses is changed. Full and half amplitudes pulses are used to induce changes in the response of the contrast agent. The received echoes from the emitted half amplitude pulse are adjusted with the full amplitude pulse and this pairs of pulses are subtracted. Power modulation is used to separate contrast agent echoes at low mechanical index, allowing real-time perfusion imaging.
Power modulation can be used with a low frequency wide band transducer to increase the depth and transmit the sound beam homogenous allowing ultraharmonic imaging.
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Combination of contrast with stress echocardiography: A practical guide to methods and interpretationOpen this link in a new window
2004   by www.cardiovascularultrasound.com    
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Injection RateMRI Resource Directory:<br> - Quality Advice -
 
Ultrasound contrast agents (USCAs) improve the sensitivity of various ultrasound applications. They usually stay within the vascular space and can be injected several times. Nevertheless the contrast enhancement is limited caused by physiologic clearance and bubble destruction.

Different injection techniques to improve the imaging:
point Bolus injection generally results in a more or less prolonged blooming phase and a relatively short enhancing period of approximately 2- to 3 minutes.
point Slow injection provides markedly prolonged enhancement by minimizing over-contrast artifacts.
point Continuous perfusion achieves stable and uniform enhancement, lasting until the infusion is stopped.
Continuous infusion yield a steady-state concentration of the USCAs, greater examination time with optimal enhancement, avoid bloom and possibly other artifacts. Continuous infusion also allows the sonographer to optimize the effective dose individually during the examination.
See also Power Modulation.
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Continuous Infusion Versus Bolus Injection Of Ultrasound Contrast Agents in Vascular Doppler Flow ImagingOpen this link in a new window
2000   by stroke.ahajournals.org    
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Non-Linear ImagingInfoSheet: - Modes - 
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Non-linear imaging is used to detect primary non-linear components of the received echo. Non-linear methods like harmonic imaging and pulse inversion imaging are designed to detect ultrasound contrast agents.
See also Contrast Pulse Sequencing, and Power Modulation.
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Ultraharmonic ImagingInfoSheet: - Modes - 
Intro, 
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Ultraharmonic is an oscillation at a frequency that is a rational multiple of that of its fundamental sinusoidal oscillation, for example 1.5 or 2.5 times the fundamental frequency. Ultraharmonic imaging is a method to eliminate tissue artifacts and therefore increase contrast to tissue ratio.
Also called Superharmonic Imaging. See also Power Modulation.
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 Further Reading:
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Combination of contrast with stress echocardiography: A practical guide to methods and interpretationOpen this link in a new window
2004   by www.cardiovascularultrasound.com    
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