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Medical ImagingMRI Resource Directory:<br> - History of UltraSound -
 
The definition of imaging is the visual representation of an object. Medical imaging began after the discovery of x-rays by Konrad Roentgen 1896. The first fifty years of radiological imaging, pictures have been created by focusing x-rays on the examined body part and direct depiction onto a single piece of film inside a special cassette. The next development involved the use of fluorescent screens and special glasses to see x-ray images in real time.
A major development was the application of contrast agents for a better image contrast and organ visualization. In the 1950s, first nuclear medicine studies showed the up-take of very low-level radioactive chemicals in organs, using special gamma cameras. This medical imaging technology allows information of biologic processes in vivo. Today, PET and SPECT play an important role in both clinical research and diagnosis of biochemical and physiologic processes. In 1955, the first x-ray image intensifier allowed the pick up and display of x-ray movies.
In the 1960s, the principals of sonar were applied to diagnostic imaging. Ultrasonic waves generated by a quartz crystal are reflected at the interfaces between different tissues, received by the ultrasound machine, and turned into pictures with the use of computers and reconstruction software. Ultrasound has been imported into practically every area of medicine as an important diagnostic tool, and there are great opportunities for its further development. Looking into the future, the grand challenges include targeted contrast imaging, real-time 3D or 4D ultrasound, and molecular imaging. The earliest use of ultrasound contrast agents (USCA) was in 1968.
Digital imaging techniques were implemented in the 1970s into conventional fluoroscopic image intensifier and by Godfrey Hounsfield with the first computed tomography. Digital images are electronic snapshots sampled and mapped as a grid of dots or pixels. The introduction of x-ray CT revolutionised medical imaging with cross sectional images of the human body and high contrast between different types of soft tissue. These developments were made possible by analog to digital converters and computers. The multislice spiral CT technology has expands the clinical applications dramatically.
The first MRI devices were tested on clinical patients in 1980. With technological improvements including higher field strength, more open MRI magnets, faster gradient systems, and novel data-acquisition techniques, MRI is a real-time interactive imaging modality that provides both detailed structural and functional information of the body.
Today, imaging in medicine has advanced to a stage that was inconceivable 100 years ago, with growing medical imaging modalities:
X-ray projection imaging
Fluoroscopy
Computed tomography (CT / CAT)
Ultrasound (US)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)
Positron emission tomography (PET)
Magnetic source imaging (MSI)
All this type of scans are an integral part of modern healthcare. Because of the rapid development of digital imaging modalities, the increasing need for an efficient management leads to the widening of radiology information systems (RIS) and archival of images in digital form in Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS). In telemedicine, medical images of MRI scans, x-ray examinations, CT scans and ultrasound pictures are transmitted in real time.
See also History of Ultrasound Contrast Agents, and History of Ultrasound.
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Transmission Line Matrix (TLM) modelling of medical ultrasound(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
   by www.era.lib.ed.ac.uk    
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Berlex Laboratories, Inc.MRI Resource Directory:<br> - Manufacturers -
 
www.berleximaging.com

The company is developing and making specialized medicines for treating multiple sclerosis, dermatological disorders, female health concerns, cancer and is creating new diagnostic imaging techniques. Berlex Laboratories, Inc. is a pioneer in the imaging market. It has introduced a broad range of imaging agents. Its contribution began in 1988 with the introduction of the world’s first magnetic resonance imaging agent, Magnevist® (gadopentetate dimeglumine) injection. Berlex Laboratories, Inc. is an US affiliate of Schering AG Germany.

Contact Information:
MAIL Berlex Laboratories, Inc.
340 Changebridge Road
PO Box 1000
Montville, NJ 07045-1000
USA
PHONE +1-973-487-2000
see also contact us
FAX +1-973-487-2015
ONLINE www.berlex.com
www.berleximaging.com
CONTACT INFO PAGE www.berlex.com/contact
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