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Ultrasound Gel - UltraSound Physics - Portals - Vascular - PACS - Patient Information
 
AlbunexInfoSheet: - Contrast Agents - 
Intro, 
Historical Development, 
Microbubbles,
etc.MRI Resource Directory:<br> - Contrast Agents -
 
Albunex and Infoson, used mainly in cardiac evaluations, are first generation one-pass-only contrast agents and have been replaced by the new-generation contrast media. Albunex and Infoson are the same sonicated human serum albumin microbubbles. Infoson is licensed and manufactured in Europe, while Albunex was produced in the USA.
Albunex, an air-filled microbubble with a denatured albumin shell (modified from air-filled albumin microspheres prepared from sonicated 5% human serum albumin), was the first FDA-approved contrast agent, but is no longer in production.
Cardiac shunts and valve regurgitations are often evaluated with Color Doppler Imaging (CDI), which also improved with injections of Albunex, but this agent is pressure-sensitive and does not recirculate. It is effectively a one-pass-only agent, limiting its clinical efficacy.
See also First generation USCA, Echocardiography and Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound.
Drug Information and Specification:
DEVELOPER Mallinckrodt Inc.
INDICATION Contrast sonography and Doppler-echocardiography
APPLICATION Intravenous injection
TYPE Microbubble
SHELL - STABILIZATION Albumin
GAS Air
DO NOT RELY ON THE INFORMATION PROVIDED HERE, THEY ARE NOT A SUBSTITUTE FOR THE ACCOMPANYING PACKAGE INSERT!

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• Related Searches:
    • Ultrasound Contrast Agents
    • History of Ultrasound Contrast Agents
    • First generation USCA
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 Further Reading:
  News & More:
molecular imaging using ultrasoundOpen this link in a new window
   by bjr.birjournals.org    
Detecting and Imaging Microbubble contrast agents with ultrasoundOpen this link in a new window
2000   by www.collectionscanada.ca    
US Resources  
Ultrasound Guided Interventions - Service and Repair - Ultrasound Gel - Manufacturers - Liver -
 
History of Ultrasound Contrast AgentsInfoSheet: - Contrast Agents - 
Intro, 
Historical Development, 
Microbubbles,
etc.MRI Resource Directory:<br> - History of UltraSound -
 
The earliest introduction of vascular ultrasound contrast agents (USCA) was by Gramiak and Shah in 1968, when they injected agitated saline into the ascending aorta and cardiac chambers during echocardiographic to opacify the left heart chamber. Strong echoes were produced within the heart, due to the acoustic mismatch between free air microbubbles in the saline and the surrounding blood.
The disadvantage of this microbubbles produced by agitation, was that the air quickly leak from the thin bubble shell into the blood, where it dissolved. In addition, the small bubbles that were capable of traversing the capillary bed did not survive long enough for imaging because the air quickly dissipated into the blood. Aside from agitated saline, also hydrogen peroxide, indocyanine green dye, and iodinated contrast has been tested. The commercial development of contrast agents began in the 1980s with greatest effort to the stabilization of small microbubbles.

The development generations by now:
point first generation USCA = non-transpulmonary vascular;;
point second generation USCA = transpulmonary vascular, with short half-life (less than 5 min);
point third generation USCA = transpulmonary vascular, with longer half-life (greater than 5 min).

To pass through the lung capillaries and enter into the systemic circulation, microspheres should be less than 10 µm in diameter. Air bubbles in that size range persist in solution for only a short time; too short for systemic vascular use.
The first developed agent was Echovist (1982), which enabled the enhancement of the right heart. The second generation of echogenic agents, sonicated 5% human albumin-containing air bubbles (Albunex), were capable of transpulmonary passage but often failed to produce adequate imaging of the left heart. Both Albunex and Levovist utilize air as the gas component of the microbubble.
In the 1990s newer developed agents with fluorocarbon gases and albumin, surfactant, lipid, or polymer shells have an increased persistence of the microspheres. This smaller, more stable microbubble agents, and improvements in ultrasound technology, have resulted in a wider range of application including myocardial perfusion.
See also First Generation USCA, Second Generation USCA, and Third Generation USCA.
Radiology-tip.comSafety of Contrast Agents
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 Further Reading:
  Basics:
The First Long-Lasting Use of Echocardiography: A Result of a False AdvertisementOpen this link in a new window
2008   by imaging.onlinejacc.org    
  News & More:
The clinical applications of contrast echocardiography(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
2000   by cme.medscape.com     
US Resources  
UltraSound Technician and Technologist Schools - Safety - Heart - Service and Repair - UltraSound Technician and Technologist Jobs - Portable UltraSound
 
Mallinckrodt, Inc.MRI Resource Directory:<br> - Manufacturers -
 
www.mallinckrodt.com

The company makes and distributes products for respiratory care; bulk and dosage pharmaceuticals, primarily for pain relief and addiction therapy; and imaging agents for magnetic resonance, ultrasound, X-ray, and nuclear medicine applications. With worldwide manufacturing and distribution facilities and sales offices, Mallinckrodt, Inc. sells its products worldwide.

Ultrasound Related Product Lines:
Contrast Agents:
TRADE NAME APPROVED FOR SALE /
DEVELOPMENT
DEVELOPMENT
Albunex
MP1950

Contact Information:
MAIL Mallinckrodt, Inc.
675 McDonnell Blvd.
Hazelwood, MO 63042
USA
PHONE US: (888)744-1414
International: +1-314-654-3177
FAX +1-314-654-5380
E-MAIL Imaging Products Customer Service:
US: Imaging Customer Service
International: icsstl@mkg.com
ONLINE www.mallinckrodt.com
CONTACT INFO PAGE www.mallinckrodt.com/contact/contact.html
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 Further Reading:
  News & More:
Nycomed Amersham and Mallinckrodt Agree on Ultrasound Patent Settlement and Announce Joint Development of Existing Ultrasound ProductsOpen this link in a new window
   by www.prnewswire.com    
US Resources  
UltraSound Reimbursement - Ultrasound Therapy - Service and Repair - UltraSound Training Courses - Examinations -
 
Related Searches:
 • Ultrasound Contrast Agents
 • History of Ultrasound Contrast Agents
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