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 'Absorbed Dose' 
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Absorbed DoseMRI Resource Directory:<br> - UltraSound Physics -
 
In physics, the absorbed dose is the ultrasonic power absorbed per unit of mass of an object, and is measured in watts per kilogram (W/kg). The absorption increases with ultrasound intensity and frequency.
The thermal index describes the potential for heating of the patient's tissue due to the application of energy.
See also Thermal Effect, Ultrasound Safety, Ultrasound Regulations.
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Physics Tutorial: Ultrasound PhysicsOpen this link in a new window
   by www.physics247.com    
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AbsorptionMRI Resource Directory:<br> - UltraSound Physics -
 
Absorption is the transfer of energy from the ultrasound beam to the tissue. Absorption of acoustic energy increases the temperature of the tissue. This phenomenon, known as thermal radiation, has been used with some limited success to treat cancerous lesions in the breast and prostate gland. The absorption is proportional to the frequency.
See also Absorbed Dose, Thermal Effect, Thermotherapy.
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Physics Tutorial: Ultrasound PhysicsOpen this link in a new window
   by www.physics247.com    
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ultrasound characteristics of breast cancerOpen this link in a new window
   by rad.usuhs.mil    
Ultrasound in diagnostic and therapyOpen this link in a new window
   by www.anst.uu.se    
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Thermal EffectMRI Resource Directory:<br> - UltraSound Physics -
 
The thermal effect of ultrasound is caused by absorption of the ultrasound beam energy. As the ultrasound waves are absorbed, their energy is converted into heat. The higher the frequency, the greater the absorbed dose, converted to heat according the equation: f = 1/T where T is the period as in simple harmonic motion. Ultrasound is a mechanical energy in which a pressure wave travels through tissue. Heat is produced at the transducer surface and also tissue in the depth can be heated as ultrasound is absorbed.
The thermal effect is highest in tissue with a high absorption coefficient, particularly in bone, and is low where there is little absorption. The temperature rise is also dependent on the thermal characteristics of the tissue (conduction of heat and perfusion), the ultrasound intensity and the length of examination time. The intensity is also dependent on the power output and the position of the tissue in the beam profile. The intensity at a particular point can be changed by many of the operator controls, for example power output, mode (B-mode, color flow, spectral Doppler), scan depth, focus, zoom and area of color flow imaging. The transducer face and tissue in contact with the transducer can be heated.
See also Thermal Units Per Hour and Ultrasound Radiation Force.
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Guidelines for the Safe Use of Diagnostic Ultrasound(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
   by folk.ntnu.no    
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Ultrasound Radiation ForceMRI Resource Directory:<br> - UltraSound Physics -
 
The traveling ultrasonic wave causes a low-level ultrasound radiation force when this energy is absorbed in tissues (absorbed dose). This force produces a pressure in the direction of the beam and away from the transducer. It should not be confused with the oscillatory pressure of the ultrasound wave itself. The pressure that results and the pressure gradient across the beam are very low, even for intensities at the higher end of the range of diagnostic ultrasound. Mechanical effects like radiation forces lead to stress at tissue interfaces. The effect of the force is manifest in volumes of fluid where streaming can occur with motion within the fluid. The fluid velocities which result are low and are unlikely to cause damage.
The effects of ultrasound radiation force (also called Bjerknes Forces) were first reported in 1906 by C. A. and V. F. K. Bjerknes, when they observed the attraction and repulsion of air bubbles in a sound field.
While incompressible objects do experience radiation forces, compressible objects driven at their resonant frequency experience far larger forces and can be observably displaced by low-amplitude ultrasound waves. A microbubble driven near its resonance frequency experiences a large net radiation force in the direction of ultrasound wave propagation. Ultrasound pulses of many cycles can deflect resonant microbubbles over distances on the order of millimeters.
In addition to primary radiation force, which acts in the direction of acoustic wave propagation, a secondary radiation force for which each individual bubble is a source and receptor causes the microspheres to attract or repel each other. The result of this secondary force is that a much larger concentration of microbubbles collects along a vessel wall than might otherwise occur.
See also Acoustically Active Lipospheres.
Radiology-tip.comIonizing Radiation
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Radiation-Force Assisted Targeting Facilitates Ultrasonic Molecular ImagingOpen this link in a new window
Sunday, 4 July 2004   by www.bme.ucdavis.edu    
A Method for Radiation-Force Localized DrugDelivery Using Gas-Filled Lipospheres(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
Wednesday, 7 July 2004   by www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov    
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