UltraSound - Technology Information PortalThursday, 25 April 2019
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C-ScanInfoSheet: - Modes - 
Intro, 
Basic Modes, 
Doppler Modes, 
Contrast ModesMRI Resource Directory:
 - Modes -
 
A C-scan ultrasound can be displayed in 2D or 3D ultrasound technique. C-scan systems can generate images which are parallel to the surface of the skin (coronal). 2D plane images, usually in gray scale, are recordable at different depths, maintaining high quality subsurface information.
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• View the DATABASE results for 'C-Scan' (5).Open this link in a new window.

 Further Reading:
  Basics:
C-scan transmission ultrasound based on a hybrid microelectronic sensor array and its physical performanceOpen this link in a new window
May 2001   by adsabs.harvard.edu    
  News & More:
Latest Developments in Real-Time 2D Ultrasound Inspection for Aging AircraftOpen this link in a new window
January 1999   by www.ndt.net    
Cardiac UltrasoundMRI Resource Directory:
 - Cardiac -
 
Cardiac ultrasound, also known as echocardiography or echocardiogram, is used to provide several different levels and types of heart testing. Cardiac ultrasound utilizes the same ultrasound principles as used for obstetric and gynecologic evaluations of pregnant women, gallbladder ultrasound and other abdominal structures.
The ultrasound is directed out of a hand held probe which can be moved to image the heart from different positions. Additionally, so that heart events can be timed, ECG leads are placed on the chest. The reflected wave is converted into an actual image of the heart and displayed in a real-time mode or M-mode ultrasound format. M-mode recordings permit measurement of cardiac dimensions and detailed analysis of complex motion patterns depending on transducer angulations. Also the time relationships with other physiological variables such as ECG, heart sounds, and pulse tracings, can be recorded simultaneously. A stress echocardiogram provides information about the cardiac performance.
Two-dimensional tomographic images of selected cardiac sections give more information than M-mode about the shape of the heart and also show the spatial relationships of its structures during the cardiac cycle (diastole to systole).
See also M-Mode Echocardiography, and Myocardial Contrast Echocardiography.
Radiology-tip.comHeart Scintigraphy
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Radiology-tip.comCardiac MRI
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• View the NEWS results for 'Cardiac Ultrasound' (9).Open this link in a new window.

• View the DATABASE results for 'Cardiac Ultrasound' (8).Open this link in a new window.

 Further Reading:
  Basics:
SURVEY OF DEVELOPMENTS IN CARDIAC AND CARDIOVASCULAR ULTRASOUND IMAGING(.pdf)Open this link in a new window
   by www.sea-acustica.es    
US Resources  
Ultrasound Gel - Calculation - UltraSound Technician and Technologist Schools - 4d UltraSound - Movies - Pediatric
 
CARDIOsphereŽInfoSheet: - Contrast Agents -
Intro, 
Historical Development, 
Microbubbles,
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Contrast Agents -
 
From POINT Biomedical Corp
CARDIOsphereŽ is an ultrasound contrast agent for assessment of myocardial perfusion in patients with coronary artery disease composed of highly echogenic bispheres.
PB127 is a new developed microbubble with a bilayer polymer/albumin shell filled with nitrogen gas that has ideal characteristics for power harmonic Doppler. They can be destroyed by high power ultrasound, and spectral decorrelation between ultrasound pulses is maximized by rapid dissolution of the released nitrogen gas.
POINT Biomedical Corp. announced (March 01, 2004) that it has completed two Phase 3 trials of CARDIOsphereŽ. The Phase 3 trials were designed to evaluate the performance of CARDIOsphereŽ imaging relative to radionuclide imaging for detecting obstructive coronary artery disease and identifying the anatomic location of perfusion defects.

Drug Information and Specification:
RESEARCH NAME PB 127
DEVELOPER Point Biomedical Corp.
INDICATION -
DEVELOPMENT STAGE
Myocardial perfusion -
Phase 3 completed
APPLICATION Infusion
TYPE Microbubble
SHELL Polylactide/Albumin
CHARGE Slight Negative
GAS Nitrogen
PREPARATION Reconstitute with 2ml H2O per vial and dilute with 150 ml DSW
DO NOT RELY ON THE INFORMATION PROVIDED HERE, THEY ARE NOT A SUBSTITUTE FOR THE ACCOMPANYING PACKAGE INSERT!

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• View the NEWS results for 'CARDIOsphereŽ' (2).Open this link in a new window.

• View the DATABASE results for 'CARDIOsphereŽ' (3).Open this link in a new window.

CarisInfoSheet: - Systems -
Intro, 
TypesMRI Resource Directory:
 - Devices Machines Scanners Systems -
 
www.esaote.com/products/ultrasound/caris/products1_STD.htm

From Biosound Esaote, Inc.;
'Portable. Caris is a high performance ultrasound system that can go where you need it. Weighing less than 35 pounds, and with a built-in carrying handle, Caris Plus can be adapted to almost any clinical environment.'

Specifications for this system will be available soon.

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• View the DATABASE results for 'Caris' (5).Open this link in a new window.

 Further Reading:
  News & More:
Caris Family Product OverviewOpen this link in a new window
   by www.esaote.com    
CavitationMRI Resource Directory:
 - UltraSound Physics -
 
Cavitation is any activity of highly compressible transient or stable microbubbles of gas and/or vapour, generated by ultrasonic power in the propagation medium. Cavitation can be described as inertial or non-inertial. Inertial cavitation has the most potential to damage tissue and occurs when a gas-filled cavity grows, during pressure rarefaction of the ultrasound pulse, and contracts, during the compression phase. Collapses of bubbles can generate local high temperatures and pressures. Transient cavitation can cause tissue damage.
The threshold for cavitation is high and does not occur at current levels of diagnostic ultrasound. The introduction of contrast agents leads to the formation of microbubbles that potentially provide gas nuclei for cavitation. The use of contrast agents can lower the threshold at which cavitation occurs.

Types of cavitation:
point Acoustic cavitation - sound in liquid can produce bubbles or cavities containing gas or vapour.
point Stable cavitation - steady microbubble oscillation due to the passage of a sound wave.
point Transient cavitation - short-lived cavitation initiated by the negative pressure of the sound wave.
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• View the DATABASE results for 'Cavitation' (6).Open this link in a new window.

 Further Reading:
  Basics:
Stone fragmentation by ultrasoundOpen this link in a new window
August 2004   by www.ias.ac.in    
US Resources  
Intravascular - Education - Artifacts - Veterinary UltraSound - Services and Supplies - Obstetric
 
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