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FONAR CorporationMRI Resource Directory:
 - Manufacturers - The company is a leading manufacturer and developer of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners. The Patient Friendly MRI Company, formed in 1978, is engaged in the business of inventing, manufacturing, selling and servicing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners. FONAR is the oldest MRI company in the world. After receiving hundreds of millions in a windfall from protecting their MRI patents, they made a MRI scanner that no other MRI manufacturer has. One that the patient stands in and they call Indomitable, the Stand-Up MRI. Patients like it because it is the least claustrophobic, most comfortable MRI on the market. Doctors like it because of its superior image quality and for the first time, the patient can be scanned in the weight-bearing position, or the position of pain or symptom. In October of 2004, the company changed the product name of the Stand-Up MRI to the Upright MRI. Fonar introduced the first "open" MRI scanner in 1980 and is the originator of the iron-core nonsuperconductive and permanent magnet technology.
Product Lines:
Upright™ MRI
QUAD™ 12000 - Its 19-inch gap and Whisper Gradients™ make it extraordinarily spacious, quiet and comfortable. With its signal to noise advantage of 0.6 T and its comprehensive array of Organ-Specific™ receiver coils, the QUAD™ 12000 provides high-speed, high resolution and high contrast scanning. Product Specification
OR 360°™ - cleared for marketing by the FDA in March 2000, 360° access to the patient. A dual-purpose scanner, it can be used for conventional diagnostic scanning when not in surgical mode. Product Specification
Open Sky MRI™ - A dual purpose scanner for high-throughput scanning. Product Specification
Echo™ - open, comfortable, compact, reliable, easily sited and economical. Product Specification
Scanners in progress - Pinnacle™, a high-field superconducting Open MRI - mpExtremity MRI™, a small, in-office, weight-bearing MRI for extremities.
Contact Information
MAIL FONAR Corporation
110 Marcus Drive
Melville, N.Y. 11747
PHONE +1-631-694-2929
FAX +1-631-390-7766
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Upright™ MRIInfoSheet: - Devices -
Types of Magnets, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Devices - From FONAR Corporation;
in October of 2004, the company changed the product name of the Stand-Up™ MRI to the Upright™ MRI. The Indomitable™, Upright™ MRI is the only open MRI in the world that can perform positional MRI (pMRI), i.e. the Upright MRI™ scans patients in upright, weight-bearing positions, in addition to the conventional lie-down positions. The Upright™ MRI is the only device that can scan patients in the position their symptoms occur, in their position of pain. In early clinical reports independently confirm the effectiveness and potential of positional MRI. In October 2000, Fonar received permission to market the Indomitable™ from the FDA.

Device Information and Specification
CLINICAL APPLICATION Whole body - weight-bearing MRI - position imaging (flexion, extension, bending, standing, sitting and recumbent scanning)
CONFIGURATION Front-open and Top-open MRI
SURFACE COILS Solenoid ("Wrap-around") and planar RF receiver coils
SINGLE/MULTI SLICE 0.1 sec per slice
MULTISLICE 0.1 sec per slice
FOV Min. 6.0 cm
MAGNET TYPE Iron-frame electromagnet
or W x H
45.72 cm horizontal
POWER REQUIREMENTS 380/400/415/440/480 V
COOLING SYSTEM TYPE Water, closed-loop
5 GAUSS FRINGE FIELD, radial/axial
SHIMMING active, passive

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Further Reading:
Product Information - Fonar Corporation
  News & More:
Landmark Independent Study by UCLA School of Medicine Reports Comparison of Dynamic™ Upright® MRI With Static Upright MRI in More Than 1,000 Patients (1,302):
Thursday, 15 November 2007   by    
FONAR Wins The Wall Street Journal Technology Innovation Award For 2007 For the FONAR UPRIGHT™ Multi-Position™ MRI
Monday, 1 October 2007   by    
MRI Resources 
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A type of magnet that utilizes coils of wire, typically wound on an iron core, so that as current flows through the coil it becomes magnetized. The direction of the magnetic field is parallel to the long axis of the coil. Whole body electromagnets, used in medical imaging (also called resistive) are limited to their field strength, because the weight becomes prohibitively large at high field MRI. The magnetic field shuts down, if the current is switched of. Because this type of magnet generates heat, a good cooling system is essential.
For a stronger magnetic field, the wires must be manufactured of superconducting materials to reduce the power needed to produce the field.
See also Resistive Magnet, Superconducting Magnet and UprightMRI


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Spine MRIMRI Resource Directory:
 - Spine MRI -
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine is a noninvasive procedure to evaluate different types of tissue, including the spinal cord, vertebral disks and spaces between the vertebrae through which the nerves travel, as well as distinguish healthy tissue from diseased tissue.
The cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine MRI should be scanned in individual sections. The scan protocol parameter like e.g. the field of view (FOV), slice thickness and matrix are usually different for cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine MRI, but the method is similar. The standard views in the basic spinal MRI scan to create detailed slices (cross sections) are sagittal T1 weighted and T2 weighted images over the whole body part, and transverse (e.g. multi angle oblique) over the region of interest with different pulse sequences according to the result of the sagittal slices. Additional views or different types of pulse sequences like fat suppression, fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) or diffusion weighted imaging are created dependent on the indication.
Neurological deficit, evidence of radiculopathy, cauda equina compression
Primary tumors or drop metastases
Infection/inflammatory disease, multiple sclerosis
Postoperative evaluation of lumbar spine: disk vs. scar
Evaluation of syrinx
Localized back pain with no radiculopathy (leg pain)

Contrast enhanced MRI techniques delineate infections vs. malignancies, show a syrinx cavity and support to differentiate the postoperative conditions. After surgery for disk disease, significant fibrosis can occur in the spine. This scarring can mimic residual disk herniation. Magnetic resonance myelography evaluates spinal stenosis and various intervertebral discs can be imaged with multi angle oblique techniques. Cine series can be used to show true range of motion studies of parts of the spine. Advanced open MRI devices are developed to perform positional scans in the position of pain or symptom (e.g. UprightMRI formerly Stand-Up MRI).
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Anatomic Imaging of the Lumbar Spine  Open this link in a new window

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman

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Landmark Independent Study by UCLA School of Medicine Reports Comparison of Dynamic™ Upright® MRI With Static Upright MRI in More Than 1,000 Patients (1,302):
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MRI Resources 
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MRI hardware includes the electrical and mechanical components of a scanning device.
The main hardware components for the MRI machine are:
The magnet establishing the B0 field to align the spins.
Within the magnet are the gradient coils for producing variations in B0 in the X, Y, and Z directions to make a localization of the received data possible.
Within the gradient coil or directly on the object being imaged is the radio frequency (RF) coil. This RF coil is used to establish the B1 magnetic field necessary to excite the spinning nuclei. The RF coil also detects the signal emitted from the spins within the object being imaged.
The RF amplifier increases the power of the pulses.
The analog to digital converter converts the received analog raw data into digital values.
Depending on the design of the device and the body part being imaged the patient is positioned inside the magnet (e.g. on a movable table or standing upright).
The MRI scan room is surrounded by a RF shield (Faraday cage).
In addition, a computer console, a display, and a film printer belong to the MRI equipment.

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In 2075 (after about 100 years of ...) the MRI scan will be :
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