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Volumetric Imaging
 
Volumetric imaging is a 3D technique where all the MRI signals are collected from the entire tissue sample and imaged as a whole entity, therefore providing a high signal to noise ratio. The acquisition of isotropic voxels or thin slices with high spatial resolution allows to create multiplanar reconstructions in all planes; a compensation for the usually longer scan time. The acquisition time can be reduced by parallel imaging technique.
New T2 weighted variants of 3D sequences (FSE-XETA, T2-SPACE, VISTA) have been introduced that differ from conventional FSE sequences. An echo train containing up to 200 echoes obtained at a minimum echo spacing allows very fast acquisition. A flip angle modulation (flip angle sweep - FAS) during the FSE readout carries magnetization as long as possible to avoid blurring and provide optimal signal at the effective echo time. This type of imaging is well suited for brain and spine MRI procedures.
Newer T1 weighted variants include Liver Acquisition with Volume Acquisition (LAVA) and T1W High Resolution Isotropic Volume Examination (THRIVE), which have advantages for dynamic breath hold imaging in liver and abdominal examinations.
See also Volume Imaging, 3 Dimensional Imaging.
 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
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 MRI of the Skull Base  Open this link in a new window
    
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
Cutting Edge Imaging of THE Spine
February 2007   by www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov    
3-D VOLUMETRIC IMAGING FOR STEREOTACTIC LESIONAL AND DEEP BRAIN STIMULATION SURGERY
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Fast Relaxation Fast Spin EchoInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.
 
(FRFSE, FR-FSE) The fast relaxation fast spin echo sequence provides high signal intensity of fluids even with short repetition times, and can be used with parallel imaging techniques for short breath hold imaging or respiratory gating for free-breathing, high isotropic resolution MR imaging. After signal decay at the end of the echo train, a negative 90° pulse align spins with long T2 from the transverse plane to the longitudinal plane, leading to a much faster recovery of tissues with long T2 time to the equilibrium and thus better contrast between tissues with long and short T2.
Fast relaxation FSE has advantages also for volumetric imaging as the TR can be substantially reduced and thus the scan time. The sequence can be post processed with maximum intensity projection, surface or volume rendering algorithms to visualize anatomical details in brain or spine MRI. Cerebro spinal fluid pulsation artifacts, often problematic in the cervical or thoracic spine may be reduced by radial sampling, in particular when combined with acquisitions of the PROPELLER type.
See also Fast spin echo, Driven Equilibrium.
 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Shoulder Sagittal T2 FatSat FRFSE  Open this link in a new window
    

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 Shoulder Axial T2 FatSat FRFSE  Open this link in a new window
 Shoulder Coronal T2 FatSat FRFSE  Open this link in a new window
    

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 
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Slice Encoding
 
Relates to the addition of phase encoding steps for 3D volumetric imaging.
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Searchterm 'Volumetric Imaging' was also found in the following services: 
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Voxel
 
A voxel is a volume element (volumetric and pixel) representing a value in the three dimensional space, corresponding to a pixel for a given slice thickness. Voxels are frequently used in the visualization and analysis of medical data. The Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI pixel intensity is proportional to the signal intensity of the appropriate voxel.
See also Volumetric Imaging.
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• View the DATABASE results for 'Voxel' (35).Open this link in a new window

 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
Magnetic Resonance Imaging, History & Introduction
2000   by www.cis.rit.edu    
Voxel-based structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of patients with early onset schizophrenia
Monday, 22 December 2008   by 7thspace.com    
  News & More:
Quantity, not just quality, in new Stanford brain scan method
Monday, 4 November 2013   by news.stanford.edu    
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