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Volume Rendering
 
Volume rendering is a technique that incorporates data from all pixels in an image to provide a 3D representation. By incorporating cut planes to eliminate unwanted structures and by varying the degree of opacity of structures, image viewing may be optimized. This technique can be effective at depicting arteries and veins even when these structures are adjacent.
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
3D-DOCTOR Tutorial
   by www.ablesw.com    
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Fast Imaging Employing Steady State AcquisitionInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
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Overview, 
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(FIESTA) The fast imaging employing steady state acquisition sequence provides images of fluid filled structures with very short acquisition times. The FIESTA sequence uses the T2 steady state contrast mechanism to provide high SNR images with strong signal from fluid tissues while suppressing background tissue for contrast and anatomic detail of small structures. In addition, the ultra short TR and TE enable extremely short acquisition times - shorter than FSE - and the images can be post processed using MIP, volume rendering, or 3D navigator techniques.
See Steady State Free Precession.
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Fast Relaxation Fast Spin EchoInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
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(FRFSE, FR-FSE) The fast relaxation fast spin echo sequence provides high signal intensity of fluids even with short repetition times, and can be used with parallel imaging techniques for short breath hold imaging or respiratory gating for free-breathing, high isotropic resolution MR imaging. After signal decay at the end of the echo train, a negative 90° pulse align spins with long T2 from the transverse plane to the longitudinal plane, leading to a much faster recovery of tissues with long T2 time to the equilibrium and thus better contrast between tissues with long and short T2.
Fast relaxation FSE has advantages also for volumetric imaging as the TR can be substantially reduced and thus the scan time. The sequence can be post processed with maximum intensity projection, surface or volume rendering algorithms to visualize anatomical details in brain or spine MRI. Cerebro spinal fluid pulsation artifacts, often problematic in the cervical or thoracic spine may be reduced by radial sampling, in particular when combined with acquisitions of the PROPELLER type.
See also Fast spin echo, Driven Equilibrium.
 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Shoulder Sagittal T2 FatSat FRFSE  Open this link in a new window
    

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 Shoulder Axial T2 FatSat FRFSE  Open this link in a new window
 Shoulder Coronal T2 FatSat FRFSE  Open this link in a new window
    

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 
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Fat Saturation
 
(FAT SAT) A specialized technique that selectively saturates fat protons prior to acquiring data as in standard sequences, so that they produce a negligible signal. The presaturation pulse is applied prior to each slice selection. This technique requires a very homogeneous magnetic field and very precise frequency calibration.
Fat saturation does not work well on inhomogeneous volumes of tissue due to a change in the precessional frequencies as the difference in volume affects the magnetic field homogeneity. The addition of a water bag simulates a more homogeneous volume of tissue, thus improving the fat saturation. Since the protons in the water bag are in motion due to recent motion of the bag, phase ghosts can be visualized.
Fat saturation can also be difficult in a region of metallic prosthesis. This is caused by an alteration in the local magnetic field resulting in a change to the precessional frequencies, rendering the chemical saturation pulses ineffective.
See also Fat Suppression, and Dixon.

 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Shoulder Sagittal T2 FatSat FRFSE  Open this link in a new window
    

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 Shoulder Coronal T2 FatSat FRFSE  Open this link in a new window
 Shoulder Axial T2 FatSat FRFSE  Open this link in a new window
    

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 
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• View the DATABASE results for 'Fat Saturation' (9).Open this link in a new window

 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
Techniques of Fat Suppression(.pdf)
   by cds.ismrm.org    
  News & More:
New Imaging Technique Reveals Fatty Hearts In Pre-diabetics
Wednesday, 5 September 2007   by www.sciencedaily.com:80    
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