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 'Transverse Magnetization' 
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Transverse Magnetization
 
The xy component of the net magnetization vector at right angles to the main magnetic field. The precession of the transverse magnetization at the Larmor frequency is responsible for the detectable MRI signal. In the absence of externally applied RF energy, the transverse magnetization will decay to zero with a characteristic time constant of T2, or more strictly T2*.
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• Related Searches:
    • Bipolar Gradient Pulse
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    • Excitation
    • Longitudinal Magnetization
    • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Signal
 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
Measuring T1 and T2 Relaxation - Introductory NMR & MRI from Magritek
   by www.azom.com    
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Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Signal
 
The electromagnetic signal in the radio-frequency range produced by the precession of the transverse magnetization of the spins. The rotation of the transverse magnetization induces a voltage in a receiving antenna (coil), which is amplified and demodulated by the receiver circuits. Electromagnetic signal in the radio frequency range produced by the precession of the transverse magnetization of the spins. The rotation of the transverse magnetization induces a voltage in a coil, which is amplified and demodulated by the receiver;; the signal may refer only to this induced voltage.
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
Spin echoes, CPMG and T2 relaxation - Introductory NMR & MRI from Magritek
2013   by www.azom.com    
NMR Spectroscopy - Theory
   by www.shu.ac.uk    
  News & More:
A powder to enhance NMR signals
Thursday, 12 December 2013   by phys.org    
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Partial Fourier Technique
 
The partial Fourier technique is a modification of the Fourier transformation imaging method used in MRI in which the symmetry of the raw data in k-space is used to reduce the data acquisition time by acquiring only a part of k-space data.
The symmetry in k-space is a basic property of Fourier transformation and is called Hermitian symmetry. Thus, for the case of a real valued function g, the data on one half of k-space can be used to generate the data on the other half.
Utilization of this symmetry to reduce the acquisition time depends on whether the MRI problem obeys the assumption made above, i.e. that the function being characterized is real.
The function imaged in MRI is the distribution of transverse magnetization Mxy, which is a vector quantity having a magnitude, and a direction in the transverse plane. A convenient mathematical notation is to use a complex number to denote a vector quantity such as the transverse magnetization, by assigning the x'-component of the magnetization to the real part of the number and the y'-component to the imaginary part. (Sometimes, this mathematical convenience is stretched somewhat, and the magnetization is described as having a real component and an imaginary component. Physically, the x' and y' components of Mxy are equally 'real' in the tangible sense.)
Thus, from the known symmetry properties for the Fourier transformation of a real valued function, if the transverse magnetization is entirely in the x'-component (i.e. the y'-component is zero), then an image can be formed from the data for only half of k-space (ignoring the effects of the imaging gradients, e.g. the readout- and phase encoding gradients).
The conditions under which Hermitian symmetry holds and the corrections that must be applied when the assumption is not strictly obeyed must be considered.
There are a variety of factors that can change the phase of the transverse magnetization:
Off resonance (e.g. chemical shift and magnetic field inhomogeneity cause local phase shifts in gradient echo pulse sequences. This is less of a problem in spin echo pulse sequences.
Flow and motion in the presence of gradients also cause phase shifts.
Effects of the radio frequency RF pulses can also cause phase shifts in the image, especially when different coils are used to transmit and receive.
Only, if one can assume that the phase shifts are slowly varying across the object (i.e. not completely independent in each pixel) significant benefits can still be obtained. To avoid problems due to slowly varying phase shifts in the object, more than one half of k-space must be covered. Thus, both sides of k-space are measured in a low spatial frequency range while at higher frequencies they are measured only on one side. The fully sampled low frequency portion is used to characterize (and correct for) the slowly varying phase shifts.
Several reconstruction algorithms are available to achieve this. The size of the fully sampled region is dependent on the spatial frequency content of the phase shifts. The partial Fourier method can be employed to reduce the number of phase encoding values used and therefore to reduce the scan time. This method is sometimes called half-NEX, 3/4-NEX imaging, etc. (NEX/NSA). The scan time reduction comes at the expense of signal to noise ratio (SNR).
Partial k-space coverage is also useable in the readout direction. To accomplish this, the dephasing gradient in the readout direction is reduced, and the duration of the readout gradient and the data acquisition window are shortened.
This is often used in gradient echo imaging to reduce the echo time (TE). The benefit is at the expense in SNR, although this may be partly offset by the reduced echo time. Partial Fourier imaging should not be used when phase information is eligible, as in phase contrast angiography.
See also acronyms for 'partial Fourier techniques' from different manufacturers.
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Spoiler Gradient PulseInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
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Overview, 
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Magnetic field gradient pulse applied to effectively remove transverse magnetization by producing a rapid variation of its phase along the direction of the gradient. This is done after the echo so that transverse magnetization is destroyed prior to the next excitation pulse, to spoil any remaining xy-magnetization or to refocus the xy-magnetization.
For example, when used to remove the unwanted signal resulting from an imperfect 180° refocusing RF pulse, a corresponding compensating gradient pulse may be applied prior to the refocusing RF pulse in order to avoid spoiling the desired transverse magnetization resulting from the initial excitation. Also called homospoil pulse.
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Further Reading:
  News & More:
Clinical evaluation of a speed optimized T2 weighted fast spin echo sequence at 3.0 T using variable flip angle refocusing, half-Fourier acquisition and parallel imaging
Wednesday, 25 October 2006
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Balanced SequenceForum -
related threadsInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Intro, 
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This family of sequences uses a balanced gradient waveform. This waveform will act on any stationary spin on resonance between 2 consecutive RF pulses and return it to the same phase it had before the gradients were applied. A balanced sequence starts out with a RF pulse of 90° or less and the spins in the steady state. Prior to the next TR in the slice encoding, the phase encoding and the frequency encoding direction, gradients are balanced so their net value is zero. Now the spins are prepared to accept the next RF pulse, and their corresponding signal can become part of the new transverse magnetization. If the balanced gradients maintain the longitudinal and transverse magnetization, the result is that both T1 and T2 contrast are represented in the image.
This pulse sequence produces images with increased signal from fluid (like T2 weighted sequences), along with retaining T1 weighted tissue contrast. Balanced sequences are particularly useful in cardiac MRI. Because this form of sequence is extremely dependent on field homogeneity, it is essential to run a shimming prior the acquisition.
Usually the gray and white matter contrast is poor, making this type of sequence unsuited for brain MRI. Modifications like ramping up and down the flip angles can increase signal to noise ratio and contrast of brain tissues (suggested under the name COSMIC - Coherent Oscillatory State acquisition for the Manipulation of Image Contrast).
These sequences include e.g. Balanced Fast Field Echo (bFFE), Balanced Turbo Field Echo (bTFE), Fast Imaging with Steady Precession (TrueFISP, sometimes short TRUFI), Completely Balanced Steady State (CBASS) and Balanced SARGE (BASG).

 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Cardiac Infarct Short Axis Cine Overview  Open this link in a new window
    

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 Infarct 4 Chamber Cine  Open this link in a new window
    

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 
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Further Reading:
  News & More:
Generic Eddy Current Compensation for Rapid Magnetic Resonance Imaging(.pdf)
   by www.switt.ch    
Magnetic resonance imaging guided musculoskeletal interventions at 0.23T: Chapter 4. Materials and methods
2002
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