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Trace Image
In trace images, the contrast is generated by the direction of the diffusion tensor. This parametric images contains the average of the three eigenvalues (independent of the frame of reference).
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Diffusion Tensor ImagingInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
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 - Diffusion Weighted Imaging -
(DTI) Diffusion tensor imaging is the more sophisticated form of DWI, which allows for the determination of directionality as well as the magnitude of water diffusion. This kind of MR imaging can estimates damage to nerve fibers that connect the area of the brain affected by the stroke to brain regions that are distant from it, and can be used to determine the effectiveness of stroke prevention medications.
DTI (FiberTrak) enables to visualize white matter fibers in the brain and can map (trace image) subtle changes in the white matter associated with diseases such as multiple sclerosis and epilepsy, as well as assessing diseases where the brain's wiring is abnormal, such as schizophrenia.
The fractional anisotropy (FA) gives information about the shape of the diffusion tensor at each voxel. The FA is based on the normalized variance of the eigenvalues. The fractional anisotropy reflects differences between an isotropic diffusion and a linear diffusion. The FA range is between 0 and 1 (0 = isotropic diffusion, 1 = highly directional).
The development of new imaging methods and some useful analysis techniques, such as 3-dimensional anisotropy contrast (3DAC) and spatial tracking of the diffusion tensor tractography (DTT), are currently under study.


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Further Reading:
  News & More:
Imaging Technique for Spinal Cord Injury Shows Promise
Sunday, 22 December 2013   by    
DTI: a New Diagnostic Tool for Injuries in Motor Vehicle Accidents
Saturday, 19 November 2011   by    
Imaging shows structural changes in mild traumatic brain injury
Thursday, 25 October 2007   by    
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Apparent Diffusion CoefficientInfoSheet: - Artifacts - 
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 - Diffusion Weighted Imaging -
(ADC) A diffusion coefficient to differentiate T2 shine through effects or artifacts from real ischemic lesions. In the human brain, water diffusion is a three-dimensional process that is not truly random because the diffusional motion of water is impeded by natural barriers. These barriers are cell membranes, myelin sheaths, white matter fiber tracts, and protein molecules.
The apparent water diffusion coefficients can be calculated by acquiring two or more images with a different gradient duration and amplitude (b-values). The contrast in the ADC map depends on the spatially distributed diffusion coefficient of the acquired tissues and does not contain T1 and T2* values.
The increased sensitivity of diffusion-weighted MRI in detecting acute ischemia is thought to be the result of the water shift intracellularly restricting motion of water protons (cytotoxic edema), whereas the conventional T2 weighted images show signal alteration mostly as a result of vasogenic edema.
The reduced ADC value also could be the result of decreased temperature in the nonperfused tissues, loss of brain pulsations leading to a decrease in apparent proton motion, increased tissue osmolality associated with ischemia, or a combination of these factors. The lower ADC measurements seen with early ischemia, have not been fully established, however, a lower apparent ADC is a sensitive indicator of early ischemic brain at a stage when ischemic tissue remains potentially salvageable.
See also Diffusion Weighted Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Tractography.

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Further Reading:
Implementation of Dual-Source RF Excitation in 3 T MR-Scanners Allows for Nearly Identical ADC Values Compared to 1.5 T MR Scanners in the Abdomen
Wednesday, 29 February 2012   by    
Diffusion Imaging: From Basic Physics to Practical Imaging
1999   by    
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EORTC study aims to qualify ADC as predictive imaging biomarker in preoperative regimens
Monday, 4 January 2016   by    
Novel MRI Technique Could Reduce Breast Biopsies, University of Washington Study
Tuesday, 2 October 2012   by    
Combination of diffusion tensor and functional magnetic resonance imaging during recovery from the vegetative state.
Tuesday, 31 August 2010   by    
Hopkins researchers use diffusion MRI technique to monitor ultrasound uterine fibroid treatment
Monday, 8 August 2005   by    
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Dual Echo Fast Gradient EchoInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
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(DE FGRE, Dual/FFE, DE FFE) Simultaneously acquired in and out of phase TE gradient echo images. To quantitatively measure the signal intensity differences between out of phase and in phase images the parameters should be the same except for the TE.
The chemical shift artifact appearing on the out-of-phase image allows for the detection of lipids in the liver or adrenal gland, such as diffuse fatty infiltration, focal fatty infiltration, focal fatty sparing, benign adrenocortical masses and intracellular lipids within a hepatocellar neoplasm, where spin echo and fat suppression techniques are not as sensitive. Specific pathologies that have been reported include liver lipoma, angiomyolipoma, myelolipoma, metastatic liposarcoma, teratocarcinoma, melanoma, haemorrhagic neoplasm and metastatic choriocarcinoma.

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Adrenal Myelolipoma
Tuesday, 19 June 2001   by    
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Myocardial Late Enhancement
(LE) Myocardial late enhancement in contrast enhanced cardiac MRI has the ability to precisely delineate myocardial scar associated with coronary artery disease. Viability imaging implies evaluating infarcted myocardium to see whether there is enough viable tissue available for revascularization. The reversal of myocardial dysfunction is particularly relevant in patients with depressed ventricular function because revascularization improves long-term survival. In comparison to SPECT and PET imaging, myocardial late enhancement MRI demonstrates areas of delayed enhancement exactly in correlation with the infarcted region.
Viability on cardiac MRI (CMR) is based on the fact that all infarcts enhance vividly 10-15 minutes after the administration of intravenous paramagnetic contrast agents. This enhancement represents the accumulation of gadolinium in the extracellular space, due to the loss of membrane integrity in the infarcted tissue. This phenomenon of delayed hyperenhancement has been proven to correlate with the actual extent of the infarct.
MRI myocardial late enhancement can quantify the size, location and transmural extent of the infarct. If the transmural extent of the infarct (region of enhancement on MRI) is less than 50% of the wall thickness, there will be improved contractility in that segment following revascularization. In areas of hypokinesia, if there is a rim of "black" or non-infarcted myocardium that is not contracting well, it indicates the presence of hibernating myocardium, which is likely to improve after revascularization of the artery supplying that particular territory.
The total duration of a myocardial late enhancement MR imaging protocol for viability is approximately 30 minutes, including scout images, first-pass images, cine images in two planes, and delayed myocardial enhancement images. In order to assess viable myocardium, the gadolinium contrast agent is injected at a dose of 0.15 to 0.2 mmol/kg. After about 10 minutes, short axis and long axis views (see cardiac axes) of the heart are obtained using an inversion prepared ECG gated gradient echo sequence. The inversion pulse is adjusted to suppress normal myocardium. Areas of nonviable myocardium retain extremely high signal intensity, black areas show normal tissue.

For Ultrasound Imaging (USI) see Myocardial Contrast Echocardiography at

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Further Reading:
A Guide To Cardiac Imaging
  News & More:
The heart reacts in two distinct phases after myocardial
Saturday, 22 November 2014   by    
Prediction of Myocardial Viability by MRI
1999   by    
Geron Demonstrates hESC-derived cardiomyocytes improve heart function after myocardial infarction
Monday, 27 August 2007   by    
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