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Result : Searchterm 'T2*' found in 2 terms [] and 41 definitions []
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GastroMARK®InfoSheet: - Contrast Agents - 
Intro, Overview, 
Characteristics, 
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etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Contrast Agents -
 
GastroMARK® belongs to the negative oral contrast agents (same as Lumirem®, another brand name for ferumoxsil). GastroMARK® is used to distinguish the loops of the bowel from other abdominal structures and physiology. When GastroMARK® is ingested, it flows through and darkens the stomach and the small intestine in 30 to 45 minutes. By more clearly identifying the intestinal loops, GastroMARK® improves visualization of adjacent abdominal tissues such as the pancreas.

Drug Information and Specification
NAME OF COMPOUND Ferumoxsil, silicone-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide, USAN, AMI-121
DEVELOPER AMAG Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
CENTRAL MOIETY Fe3+/Fe2+
CONTRAST EFFECT T2*enhanced
RELAXIVITY r1=3.4, r2=3.8, B0=1.0T
PHARMACOKINETIC Gastrointestinal
OSMOLALITY 250 mosm/kgH2O
CONCENTRATION 52.5mg Fe/300mL
DOSAGE 300 mL oral
PREPARATION Finished product
INDICATION Bowel marking
DEVELOPMENT STAGE For sale
DISTRIBUTOR See below
PRESENTATION Bottles containing 300 mL
DO NOT RELY ON THE INFORMATION PROVIDED HERE, THEY ARE NOT A SUBSTITUTE FOR THE ACCOMPANYING PACKAGE INSERT

Distribution Information
TERRITORY TRADE NAME DEVELOPMENT
STAGE
DISTRIBUTOR
USA GastroMARK® for sale Mallinckrodt Inc.
EU Lumirem® for sale Guerbet S.A.

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ferumoxsil, oral suspension GastroMARK GastroMARK ®
MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET
   by dailymed.nlm.nih.gov    
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Gradient Recalled Echo SequenceInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
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etc.
 
The gradient recalled echo MRI sequence generates gradient echoes as a consequence of echo refocusing. The initial slice selective RF pulse applied to the tissue is less than 90° (typically rotation angles are between 10° and 90°). Immediately after this RF pulse, the spins begin to dephase.
Instead of a refocusing 180° RF pulse, reversing the gradient polarity produces a gradient echo. A negative phase encoding gradient and a dephasing frequency encoding gradient are used simultaneous. The switch on of the frequency encoding gradient produces an echo caused by refocusing of the dephasing, which is caused by the dephasing gradient.
TR and flip angle together control the T1, and TE control T2* weighting.
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Magnetic resonance imaging
   by www.scholarpedia.org    
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Image Resolution
 
The image resolution is the level of detail of an image and a measurement of image quality. Higher resolution means more image detail, for example when two structures 1 mm apart are distinguishable in an image, this picture has a higher resolution than an image where they are not to distinguish.
More data points in an MR image (with same FOV) will decrease the pixel size, but not accurately improve the resolution because the different MRI sequences influence the contrast and the discernment of different tissues. With high contrast and optimal signal to noise ratio, the image resolution is depend on FOV and number of data points of a picture, but T2* effects have an additional influence.
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• View the NEWS results for 'Image Resolution' (1).Open this link in a new window.
 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
The Basics of MRI
   by www.cis.rit.edu    
  News & More:
Optimizing Musculoskeletal MR
   by rad.usuhs.mil    
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Incoherent Gradient Echo (Gradient Spoiled)InfoSheet: - Sequences - 
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Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.
 
The incoherent gradient echo (gradient spoiled) type of sequence uses a continuous shifting of the RF pulse to spoil the remaining transverse magnetization. The transverse magnetization is destroyed by a magnetic field gradient. This results in a T1 weighted image. Spoiling can be accomplished by RF or a gradient.
Gradient spoiling occurs after each echo by using strong gradients in the slice-select direction after the frequency encoding and before the next RF pulse. Because spins in different locations in the magnet thereby experience a variety of magnetic field strengths, they will precess at differing frequencies; as a consequence they will quickly become dephased. Magnetic field gradients are not very efficient at spoiling the transverse steady state. To be effective, the spins must be forced to precess far enough to become phased randomly with respect to the RF excitation pulse. In clinical MRI machines, the field gradients are set up in such a way that they increase and decrease relative to the center of the magnet; the magnetic field at the magnet 'isocenter' does not change.
The T1 weighting increases with the flip angle and the T2* weighting increases with echo time (TE). Typical repetition time (TR) are 30-500 ms and TE less than 15 ms.
See also Ernst Angle.
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Incoherent Gradient Echo (RF Spoiled)InfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.
 
A gradient echo is generated by using a pair of bipolar gradient pulses. The gradient field is negatively pulsed, causing the spins of the xy-magnetization to dephase. A second gradient pulse is applied with the opposite polarity. During the pulsing, the spins that dephased begin to rephase and generate a gradient echo.
Spoiling can be accomplished by RF or a gradient. The incoherent RF spoiled type of a gradient echo sequence use a continuous shifting of the RF pulse to spoil the residual transverse magnetization. The phase of the RF excitation and receiver channel are varied pseudo randomly with each excitation cycle to prevent the xy magnetization from achieving steady state. T2* does not dominate image contrast, so T1 and PD weighting is practical. This method is effective and can be used to achieve a shorter TR, due to a lack of additional gradients. Spoiling eliminates the effect of the remaining xy-magnetization and leads to steady state longitudinal magnetization. These sequences can be used for breath hold, dynamic imaging and in cine and volume acquisitions.
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