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Fast Relaxation Fast Spin EchoInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Types of, 
(FRFSE, FR-FSE) The fast relaxation fast spin echo sequence provides high signal intensity of fluids even with short repetition times, and can be used with parallel imaging techniques for short breath hold imaging or respiratory gating for free-breathing, high isotropic resolution MR imaging. After signal decay at the end of the echo train, a negative 90° pulse align spins with long T2 from the transverse plane to the longitudinal plane, leading to a much faster recovery of tissues with long T2 time to the equilibrium and thus better contrast between tissues with long and short T2.
Fast relaxation FSE has advantages also for volumetric imaging as the TR can be substantially reduced and thus the scan time. The sequence can be post processed with maximum intensity projection, surface or volume rendering algorithms to visualize anatomical details in brain or spine MRI. Cerebro spinal fluid pulsation artifacts, often problematic in the cervical or thoracic spine may be reduced by radial sampling, in particular when combined with acquisitions of the PROPELLER type.
See also Fast spin echo, Driven Equilibrium.
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Shoulder Sagittal T2 FatSat FRFSE  Open this link in a new window

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 Shoulder Axial T2 FatSat FRFSE  Open this link in a new window
 Shoulder Coronal T2 FatSat FRFSE  Open this link in a new window

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
MRI Resources 
Raman Spectroscopy - Pediatric and Fetal MRI - Artifacts - MRCP - Cardiovascular Imaging - Musculoskeletal and Joint MRI
MRI Procedure
The MRI device is located within a specially shielded room (Faraday cage) to avoid outside interference, caused by the use of radio waves very close in frequency to those of ordinary FM radio stations.
The MRI procedure can easily be performed through clothing and bones, but attention must be paid to ferromagnetic items, because they will be attracted from the magnetic field. A hospital gown is appropriate, or the patient should wear clothing without metal fasteners and remove any metallic objects like hairpins, jewelry, eyeglasses, clocks, hearing aids, any removable dental work, lighters, coins etc., not only for MRI safety reasons. Metal in or around the scanned area can also cause errors in the reconstructed images (artifacts). Because the strong magnetic field can displace, or disrupt metallic objects, people with an implanted active device like a cardiac pacemaker cannot be scanned under normal circumstances and should not enter the MRI area.
The MRI machine can look like a short tunnel or has an open MRI design and the magnet does not completely surround the patient. Usually the patient lies on a comfortable motorized table, which slides into the scanner, depending on the MRI device, patients may be also able to sit up. If a contrast agent is to be administered, intravenous access will be placed. A technologist will operate the MRI machine and observe the patient during the examination from an adjacent room. Several sets of images are usually required, each taking some minutes. A typical MRI scan includes three to nine imaging sequences and may take up to one hour. Improved MRI devices with powerful magnets, newer software, and advanced sequences may complete the process in less time and better image quality.
Before and after the most MRI procedures no special preparation, diet, reduced activity, and extra medication is necessary. The magnetic field and radio waves are not felt and no pain is to expect.
Movement can blur MRI images and cause certain artifacts. A possible problem is the claustrophobia that some patients experience from being inside a tunnel-like scanner. If someone is very anxious or has difficulty to lie still, a sedative agent may be given. Earplugs and/or headphones are usually given to the patient to reduce the loud acoustic noise, which the machine produces during normal operation. A technologist observes the patient during the test. Some MRI scanners are equipped with televisions and music to help the examination time pass.
MRI is not a cheap examination, however cost effective by eliminating the need for invasive radiographic procedures, biopsies, and exploratory surgery. MRI scans can also save money while minimizing patient risk and discomfort. For example, MRI can reduce the need for X-ray angiography and myelography, and can eliminate unnecessary diagnostic procedures that miss occult disease.
See also Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI, Medical Imaging, Cervical Spine MRI, Claustrophobia, MRI Risks and Pregnancy.
For Ultrasound Imaging (USI) see Ultrasound Imaging Procedures at

See also the related poll result: 'MRI will have replaced 50% of x-ray exams by'
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Brain MRI Images Axial T2  Open this link in a new window

 Circle of Willis, Time of Flight, MIP  Open this link in a new window
SlidersSliders Overview

 CE-MRA of the Carotid Arteries  Open this link in a new window
SlidersSliders Overview

 Breast MRI Images T2 And T1 Pre - Post Contrast  Open this link in a new window
 Sagittal Knee MRI Images T1 Weighted  Open this link in a new window


• View the DATABASE results for 'MRI Procedure' (11).Open this link in a new window

• View the NEWS results for 'MRI Procedure' (6).Open this link in a new window.
Further Reading:
  News & More:
Metamaterials boost sensitivity of MRI machines
Thursday, 14 January 2016   by    
Casting patterns make MRI safer
Tuesday, 13 January 2015   by    
Working with MRI machines may cause vertigo: Study
Wednesday, 25 June 2014   by    
Novel Imaging Technique Improves Prostate Cancer Detection
Tuesday, 6 January 2015   by    
MRI Improves Breast Cancer Screening in Older BRCA Carriers
Monday, 5 January 2015   by    
MRI Resources 
Cochlear Implant - Implant and Prosthesis pool - Education pool - Guidance - Coils - Most Wanted
MRI Scan
The definition of a scan is to form an image or an electronic representation. The MRI scan uses magnetic resonance principles to produce extremely detailed pictures of the body tissue without the need for X-ray exposure or other damaging forms of radiation.
MRI scans show structures of the different tissues in the body. The tissue that has the least hydrogen atoms (e.g., bones) appears dark, while the tissue with many hydrogen atoms (e.g., fat) looks bright. The MRI pictures of the brain show details and abnormal structures (brain MRI), for example, tumors, multiple sclerosis lesions, bleedings, or brain tissue that has suffered lack of oxygen after a stroke. A cardiac MRI scan demonstrates the heart as well as blood vessels (cardiovascular imaging) and is used to detect heart defects with e.g., changes in the thickness and infarctions of the muscles around the heart. With MRI scans, nearly all kind of body parts can be tested, for example the joints like knee and shoulder, lumbar, thoracic and cervical spine, the pelvis including fetal MRI, and the soft parts of the body such as the liver, kidneys, and spleen. The MRI procedure includes three to nine imaging sequences and may take up to one hour.
See also Lumbar Spine MRI, MRI Safety and Open MRI.
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Angulation of Cardiac Planes Cine Images of Septal Infarct  Open this link in a new window

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman

 Normal Fetus  Open this link in a new window

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 MRI - Anatomic Imaging of the Ankle 1  Open this link in a new window
SlidersSliders Overview

 Anatomic Imaging of the Orbita  Open this link in a new window

Radiology-tip.comDiagnostic Imaging,  Computed Tomography
Radiology-tip.comUltrasound Imaging,  Sonography

• View the DATABASE results for 'MRI Scan' (31).Open this link in a new window

• View the NEWS results for 'MRI Scan' (95).Open this link in a new window.
Further Reading:
  News & More:
Audio/Video System helps patients relax during MRI scans
Monday, 8 December 2014   by    
MRI scans could be a 'game-changer' in prostate cancer testing
Tuesday, 5 August 2014   by    
7-Tesla MRI scanner allows even more accurate diagnosis of breast cancer
Thursday, 6 March 2014   by    
Searchterm 'Spine MRI' was also found in the following services: 
News  (17)  Resources  (7)  Forum  (4)  
MultiHance®InfoSheet: - Contrast Agents - 
Intro, Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Contrast Agents -
MultiHance® is a paramagnetic contrast agent for use in diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the liver and central nervous system. MultiHance® is a small molecular weight chelate, which tightly binds the Gd atom. The substance is excreted partly by the kidneys, partly by the biliary system, which is especially unique.
MultiHance® is indicated, for the detection of focal liver lesions in patients with known or suspected primary liver cancer (e.g. hepatocellular carcinoma) or metastatic disease.
MultiHance® is also indicated in brain MRI and spine MRI where it improves the detection of lesions and provides diagnostic information additional to that obtained with unenhanced MRI.
Gd-BOPTA-enhanced MRA can provide superior vascular signal intensity and SNR, as compared with Gd-DTPA, due to its higher relaxivity, even at lower doses.
1 ml of solution MultiHance® contains: (0.5M) gadobenate dimeglumine 529 mg = gadobenic acid 334 mg + meglumine 195 mg. Viscosity at 37°C: 5.3 mPa
WARNING: NEPHROGENIC SYSTEMIC FIBROSIS Gadolinium-based contrast agents increase the risk for nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) in patients with acute or chronic severe renal insufficiency (glomerular filtration rate less than 30 mL/min/1.73m2), or acute renal insufficiency of any severity due to the hepato-renal syndrome or in the perioperative liver transplantation period.

Drug Information and Specification
NAME OF COMPOUND Gadobenate dimeglumine, Gd-BOPTA, E7155
CONTRAST EFFECT T1, predominantly positive enhancement
RELAXIVITY r1=9.7, r2=12.5, B0=0.5 T
PHARMACOKINETIC Extracellular, hepatobiliary
OSMOLALITY 1970 mosm/kg
DOSAGE 0.05 mmol/kg for Liver MRI
0.1 mmol/kg for CNS MRI
PREPARATION Solution for injection
PRESENTATION Vials of 5, 10, 15 and 20 mL, 50 and 100 mL Multipacks (Pharmacy Bulk Package)

Distribution Information
EU MultiHance® for sale Bracco Diagnostics
USA MultiHance® for sale Bracco Diagnostics
Australia MultiHance® for sale Bracco Pty Ltd
Japan E7155 Bracco-Eisai Co., Ltd.


• View the DATABASE results for 'MultiHance®' (9).Open this link in a new window

• View the NEWS results for 'MultiHance®' (1).Open this link in a new window.
Further Reading:
Important Drug Warning for Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents
Wednesday, 12 September 2007   by    
MultiHance Package Insert(.pdf)
  News & More:
FDA Expands Pediatric Age Range for MultiHance Contrast Agent
Tuesday, 30 January 2018   by    
Wednesday, 24 November 2004   by    
MRI Resources 
Nerve Stimulator - Equipment - Supplies - DICOM - Absorption and Emission - Intraoperative MRI
Slice Overlap ArtifactInfoSheet: - Artifacts - 
Case Studies, 
Reduction Index, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Artifacts -
Quick Overview
Artifact Information
NAME Slice overlap
DESCRIPTION Loss of signal
REASON Saturation
HELP Overlapping prevention

The slice overlap artifact is another name for crosstalk artifact. If slices of multislice acquisitions are overlapping, the spinning nuclei belonging to more than one slice getting multiple times saturated, which leads to signal loss in this areas.

Image Guidance
This problem occurs often in cervical or lumbar spine MRI, when scanning each disc with multi angle oblique technique. If prevention of overlapping is not possible, try to position the saturated region posterior to the spinal canal, outside the region of interest.
See also Crosstalk (Crosstalk), and Multiple Slice Imaging.
Further Reading:
Artifacts in MRI
Saturday, 1 October 2011   by    
Slice-overlap Artifacts
MRI Resources 
Sequences - RIS - Bioinformatics - General - Devices - Mobile MRI Rental
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The impact of TTIP/TPP on the MRI scanner market will bring :
more variety 
better scanners 
more risk 
less regulation 
cheaper scanners 
Lost in Translation 
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